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Mesoporous high surface area Ce0. Mesoporous gadolinium doped cerium dioxide with high surface area was produced by spray drying using Pluronic as surfactant. The similar size range of the mesopores and the observed crystallite size indicates that the porosity is partly formed from intergranular mesoporosity.

Using the spray drying method of a surfactant assisted liquid precursor solution it can Surface moisture estimation in urban areas. Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1 to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas ; and 2 to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture.

To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1 the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas ; and 2 The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees.

In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas , roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model.

The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. Surface area -volume ratios in insects. Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species.

Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method. A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga maintained in seawater cultures.

For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2. Measurement accuracy was Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors. Vermisoglou, E. Paraskevi, Attikis Greece ; Lei, C. Paraskevi, Attikis Greece. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite type, size of flakes , pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined.

SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project.

Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio. Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio SA:VOL. The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios.

Estimating surface area in early hominins. Full Text Available Height and weight-based methods of estimating surface area have played an important role in the development of the current consensus regarding the role of thermoregulation in human evolution. However, such methods may not be reliable when applied to early hominins because their limb proportions differ markedly from those of humans.

Here, we report a study in which this possibility was evaluated by comparing surface area estimates generated with the best-known height and weight-based method to estimates generated with a method that is sensitive to proportional differences. We found that the two methods yield indistinguishable estimates when applied to taxa whose limb proportions are similar to those of humans, but significantly different results when applied to taxa whose proportions differ from those of humans.

We also found that the discrepancy between the estimates generated by the two methods is almost entirely attributable to inter-taxa differences in limb proportions. One corollary of these findings is that we need to reassess hypotheses about the role of thermoregulation in human evolution that have been developed with the aid of height and weight-based methods of estimating body surface area.

Another is that we need to use other methods in future work on fossil hominin body surface areas. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area. We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator.

The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: i selection of plants from We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum morifolium L. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques.

Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo.

It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo. High surface area niobium oxides as catalysts for improved hydrogen sorption properties of ball milled MgH2. The BET surface area of as-prepared Nb 2 O 5 was tuned by heat treatment and its effect on sorption properties was studied.

Furthermore, thanks to the addition of high surface area Nb 2 O 5 , the desorption temperature was successfully lowered down to deg. C, with a significant amount of desorbed hydrogen 4. In contrast, the composite MgH 2 c-Nb 2 O 5 shows no desorption at this 'low' temperature. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products. The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor ZPPR fuel plates are presented.

Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of C and above.

The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal. High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods.

The 3. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles. Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

Negative plate macropore surfaces in lead-acid batteries: Porosity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area , and capacity. D' Alkaine, C. Brito, G. We propose an explanation for the production of an electrochemically active area during the electrochemical formation of lead-acid battery negative plates based on solid-state reactions.

Our proposal is supported by experimental data. The critical review, through the latter two parameters, indicates the existence of both macro and micropores in positive plates, but only macropores in negative plates, with characteristic surface roughness. In the present paper the surface sulfation of the precursor is controlled using various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions during an electrochemical formation process that does not include soaking.

Our results confirm that variable roughness can be produced at the negative plate macropore surfaces. The morphological changes produced by different formation conditions are assessed by measuring the macroporosity, BET area , and capacity of single negative plates. Based on these concepts, a method was developed and applied to measure independently the contributions of geometrical surface macroporosity and roughness to the negative plate capacity.

Betting on wind energy. In the first part of this study, the authors try to identify whether the economical and environmental context is adapted to the wind energy development. In order to do so, they discuss wind energy as a possible answer to climate emergency, critics formulated against wind energy, the effects of the financial crisis and the opportunities offered by wind energy within this crisis. In the second part, they discuss the French context and the debates on wind energy, highlighting the importance of some parameters in the cost analysis of wind turbine, presenting the results of a sensitivity analysis, and highlighting the importance of the over-cost calculation.

They assess the current development status of the French wind energy industry and underline the opportunities for the future. In the third part, they describe the development status, lever and perspectives in different countries: Germany where the development of this sector has been successful, China which is becoming a major actor, the United States which are displaying the highest growth in this area , and Denmark which is the world leader.

Sol-gel preparation of high surface area potassium tetratitanate for the immobilization of nuclear waste metal ions. Potassium tetratinates K 2 Ti 4 O 9 were synthesized by using the sol-gel method to produce ion-exchangeable materials with high surface area.

K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was obtained at deg. C by the sol-gel method, which uses a lower temperature than the melting method. After calcination at deg. Costs, biases and betting markets: new evidence. Established gambling operators have argued that betting exchanges should not be allowed on the grounds that they represent unfair competition. In this paper, we argue that, in fact, betting exchanges have brought about reductions in traditional market biases and significant efficien Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date Phoenix dactylifera L.

The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology RSM. The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons.

The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent phosphoric acid concentration, On semiautomatic estimation of surface area. For ellipsoidal particles, it is shown that the flower estimator is equal to the pivotal estimator based on support function measurements along four perpendicular rays.

This result makes the pivotal estimator a powerful approximation to the flower estimator. In a simulation study of prolate If the segmentation is correct the estimate is computed automatically, otherwise the expert performs the necessary measurements manually. In case of convex particles we suggest to base the semiautomatic estimation on the so-called flower estimator, a new local stereological estimator of particle surface area For convex particles, the estimator is equal to four times the area of the support set flower set of the particle transect.

We study the statistical properties of the flower estimator and compare its performance to that of two discretizations of the flower estimator, namely the pivotal estimator Low-Risk Investing without Industry Bets. The authors refute this notion by showing that a strategy of betting against beta has delivered positive returns both as an industry-neutral bet within each industry and as a pure bet across industries We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation. This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry i. None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N 2 g and Kr g.

The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i. Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts. Hafsa, Noor E. Accessible surface area ASA is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent.

For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information derived from chemical modification studies as a structure constraint.

Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.

On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0. High- surface-area active carbon. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 0 to 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 0 to 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts.

These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques.

This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area , purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate AC-alginate beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue MB removal from aqueous solution.

The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model.

The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size. The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces.

To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed.

Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area 1. The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: 1 samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size.

The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.

We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy SEM. The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases.

From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization. The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area , and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. Biggest bets in the universe unveiled.

Betting on the greatest unsolved problems in the universe is no longer the preserve of academic superstars such as Stephen Hawking. From Thursday, anyone will be able to place bets on whether the biggest physics experiments in the world will come good before Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting.

A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events a race won by a "favourite" have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events a "longshot" wins. Such favourite-longshot FL biases however appear to be more severe and persist Such favourite-longshot FL biases however appear to be more severe Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize.

Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The as-obtained sample displayed excellent specific capacitance of F g -1 at 90 A g -1 for supercapacitors.

Moreover, the unique porous structure demonstrated an ideal way to improve the volumetric energy density performance. A high energy density of Wh kg -1 or 53 Wh L -1 has been obtained in the case of ionic liquid electrolyte, which is the highest among reported biomass-derived carbon materials and will satisfy the urgent requirements of a primary power source for electric vehicles.

This work may prove to be a fast, green, and large-scale synthesis route by using the large nubby granular materials to synthesize applicable porous carbons in energy-storage devices. Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion RES method utilizing graphite oxide GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases.

The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: i promoting the reduction of the GO and ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Scanning electron microscopy SEM and transmission electron microscopy TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products.

The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area.

To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene. Pure phase LaFeO3 perovskite with improved surface area synthesized using different routes and its characterization. Three different wet chemistry routes, namely co-precipitation, combustion and sol-gel methods were used to synthesize LaFeO 3 perovskite with improved surface area.

Improved surface area was observed for all three methods as compared to the previously reported values. The perovskite synthesized using sol-gel method yields comparatively pure, crystalline phase of LaFeO 3 and relatively higher surface area of The material synthesized using co-precipitation method yielded other phases in addition to the targeted phase. The morphology of perovskite synthesized using co-precipitation method was uniform agglomerates. Combustion method yields flakes type morphology and that of sol-gel method was open pore type morphology.

The selection of method for perovskite synthesis largely depends on the targeted application and the desired properties of perovskites. The results reported in this study are useful for establishing a simple scalable method for preparation of high surface area LaFeO 3 as compared to solid-oxide method.

Further, the typical heating cycle followed for calcinations resulted in relatively high surface area in the case of all three methods. Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively.

Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measu Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean Land surface temperature LST is measured by the surface energy balance, Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching.

Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes.

In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

Bet -hedging applications for conservation. Bet hedging; Bitterroot wilderness; environmental correlation; grizzly bear; least tern; Sterna antillarum; Ursus arctos horribilis Asthma: T- bet --a master controller? Recent evidence suggests that these factors may affect airway immunopathology in asthma.

The legalisation of online gambling in multiple territories has caused a growth in the exposure of consumers to online sports betting OSB advertising. While some efforts have been made to understand the visible structure of betting promotional messages, little is known about the latent components of OSB advertisements.

The present study sought to address this issue by examining the metaphorical conceptualisation of OSB advertising. Following Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory, four main structural metaphors that shaped how OSB advertising can be understood were identified: betting as 1 an act of love, 2 a market, 3 a sport, and 4 a natural environment.

In general, these metaphors, which were found widely across 29 different betting brands, facilitated the perception of bettors as active players, with an executive role in the sport events bet upon, and greater control over bet outcomes. Here, we demonstrated that, when the precipitation process of polyamide-6 PA6 solution happens in cylindrical channels of an anodized aluminum oxide membrane AAO , interface interactions between a solid surface , solvent, non-solvent, and PA6 will influence the obtained polymer nanostructures, resulting in complex morphologies, increased surface area , and crystallization changes.

This study shows that interfacial interaction in AAO template fabrication can be used in manipulating the morphology and crystallization of one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. It also provides us a simple and novel method to create porous PA6 nanofibers with a large surface area. Surface area and volume computations are the most common applications of integration in calculus books.

When computing the surface area of a solid of revolution, students are usually told to use the frustum method instead of the disc method; however, a rigorous explanation is rarely provided. In this note, we provide one by using geometric…. On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials. Detsi, E. A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area -to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics.

In this paper we derive an analytical. Lage- area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves. Large- area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large- area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x cm and 2. Applicability of the Guggenheim—Anderson—Boer water vapour sorption model for estimation of soil specific surface area. Soil specific surface area SA controls fundamental soil processes such as retention of water, ion exchange, and adsorption and release of plant nutrients and contaminants.

For desorption isotherms, the average water activity value at which the GAB monolayer parameter was obtained was For adsorption isotherms, the values of the GAB Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting , despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising. This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling.

A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language. Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message.

The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area. An important feature of the method is that the product forms in aqueous medium under standard hydrothermal conditions without DMF and great excess of linker with the use of TEA as structure directing agent. The ZIF-8 crystal phase of the product was confirmed by XRD; this technique has been also exploited to check the crystallinity and to follow the changes in the MOF structure induced by heating.

The IR spectral profile of the material provides a complete picture of vibrations assigned to the linker and the metal center. The systematic investigation of the products obtained by increasing the TEA amount in the reacting medium from 0 to The stability of the material under severe basic conditions makes it a promising candidate in heterogeneous catalysis. The material has shown high capacity in I2 uptake, making it interesting also for selective molecular adsorption.

Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. Pd nanoparticles supported on ultrahigh surface area honeycomb-like carbon for alcohol electrooxidation. The honeycomb-like porous carbon was prepared using glucose as carbon source and solid core mesoporous shell SCMS silica as templates.

The material was characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the honeycomb-like porous carbon was consisted of hollow porous carbon HPC which gave an ultrahigh BET surface area of The porous walls of the HPC were formed in the mesoporous shells of the silica templates.

It was highly active for methanol, ethanol and isopropanol electrooxidation. The highly porous structure of such HPC can be widely used as support for uniform dispersing metal nanoparticles to increase their utilization as electrocatalysts. True surface area and particle sizes determination are key aspects of the activity of metal nanoparticle catalysts. Quantification of ligand packing density on copper nanoparticles is also reported. The concentration of the probe ligand, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole 2-MBI before and after immersion of supported copper catalysts was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry UV—vis.

The amount of ligand adsorbed was found to be proportional to the copper nanoparticles surface area. A fair agreement was found between particle sizes obtained from ligand adsorption and TEM methods. The catalytic activity of the copper nanoparticles related to their inherent surface area was evaluated using the model reaction of the oxidation of morin by hydrogen peroxide.

Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis. Cut-off values for severe stenosis are Full Text Available The present work has great importance for the economic and financial area due to the fact that targets the relevance of the financial indicators in anticipation of the stock variation.

The aim is to measure the correlation, the type and intensity, between the variation of stock market profitability and the profitability of the securities traded by banks in Romania, listed on the BSE. The research is approached transversely banks in Romania listed on the stock market as well as longitudinally from the date of listing on the Stock Exchange of each bank until Hand burns surface area : A rule of thumb. Rapid estimation of acute hand burns is important for communication, standardisation of assessment, rehabilitation and research.

Use of an individual's own thumbprint area as a fraction of their total hand surface area was evaluated to assess potential utility in hand burn evaluation. Ten health professionals used an ink-covered dominant thumb pulp to cover the surfaces of their own non-dominant hand using the contralateral thumb. Thumbprints were assessed on the web spaces, sides of digits and dorsum and palm beyond the distal wrist crease.

Hand surface area was estimated using the Banerjee and Sen method, and thumbprint ellipse area calculated to assess correlation. Mean estimated total hand surface area was The mean observed number of thumbprints on one hand was The combined mean of digital prints was 42, comprising a mean of two prints each on volar, dorsal, radial and ulnar digit surfaces , except volar middle and ring 3 prints each. Palmar prints were 15 , dorsal 15 , ulnar palm border 3, first web space 2, and second, third and fourth web spaces one each.

Using the surface of the palm alone, excluding digits, as 0. We have demonstrated how thumbprint area serves as a simple method for evaluating hand burn surface area. Comparison of surface area changes during sulfation of sodium bicarbonate in a simulated flue gas with and without NO.

Weil, A. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Sodium bicarbonate has been identified as one of the most efficient reagents for flue gas desulfurization. Sodium bicarbonate has been demonstrated both in bench scale and large scale applications by a number of researchers globally.

Notably it was shown that flue gas with NO lowered the surface area , most likely due to the formation of a low melting eutectic of sodium nitrate and sulphate. Nitrogen uptake was found to coincide with water evolution from decomposition. The results of this study more clearly define, on the microstructural level, the sulphur uptake mode.

A unique laboratory differential fixed bed reactor was designed for this study. The setup included a quick quench zone to quench the reactions for data acquisition. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio IR on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated.

The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology RSM and were identified to be microwave power of W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems. Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems RAS provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems.

Applying a recent, rapid, culture Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS. Applying fast, culture-independent techniques Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided.

BET inhibitors in metastatic prostate cancer: therapeutic implications and rational drug combinations. The bromodomain and extra-terminal BET family of proteins are epigenetic readers of acetylated histones regulating a vast network of protein expression across many different cancers. Therapeutic targeting of BET is an attractive area of clinical development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer mCRPC , particularly due to its putative effect on c-MYC expression and its interaction with the androgen receptor AR.

Areas covered: We speculate that a combination approach using inhibitors of BET proteins BETi with other targeted therapies may be required to improve the therapeutic index of BET inhibition in the management of prostate cancer. Preclinical data has identified several molecular targets that may enhance the effect of BET inhibition in the clinic.

This review will summarize the known preclinical data implicating BET as an important therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer, highlight the ongoing clinical trials targeting this protein family, and speculate on rationale combination strategies using BETi together with other agents in prostate cancer.

A literature search using Pubmed was performed for this review. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences. The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds VOCs in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces.

Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms.

The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area -to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area -to-volume ratios also were determined for each room.

The bathrooms had the highest total surface area -to-volume ratios. Total surface area -to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.

A high surface area Zr IV -based metal—organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake. Exploitation of new metal—organic framework MOF materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. Quantification of lung surface area using computed tomography. To incorporate both regional lung density measured by CT and cluster analysis of low attenuation areas for comparison with histological measurement of surface area per unit lung volume.

Methods The histological surface area per unit lung volume was estimated for samples taken from resected lung specimens of fourteen subjects. The region of the lung sampled for histology was located on the pre-operative CT scan; the regional CT median lung density and emphysematous lesion size were calculated using the X-ray attenuation values and a low attenuation cluster analysis.

Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between histological surface area per unit lung volume and CT measures. Results The median CT lung density, low attenuation cluster analysis, and the combination of both were important predictors of surface area per unit lung volume measured by histology p Conclusion Combining CT measures of lung density and emphysematous lesion size provides a more accurate estimate of lung surface area per unit lung volume than either measure alone.

Surface area considerations for corroding N reactor fuel. The N Reactor fuel is corroding at sites where the Zircaloy cladding was damaged when the fuel was discharged from the reactor. Corroding areas are clearly visible on the fuel stored in open cans in the K East Basin. There is a need to estimate the area of the corroding uranium to analyze aspects of fuel behavior as it is transitioned.

In this report, the factors that contribute to open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area are analyzed in terms of what is currently known about the N Reactor fuel. Using observations from a visual examinations of the fuel in the K East wet storage facility, a value for the corroding geometric area is estimated. Based on observations of corroding uranium and surface roughness values for other metals, a surface roughness factor is also estimated and applied to the corroding K East fuel to provide an estimated open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area.

While the estimated area may be modified as additional data become available from fuel characterization studies, the estimate provides a basis to assess effects of exposed uranium metal surfaces on fuel behavior in operations involved in transitioning from wet to dry storage, during shipment and staging, conditioning, and dry interim storage. One of the early tenets of conservation biology is that population viability is enhanced by maintaining multiple populations of a species.

The strength of this tenet is justified by principles of bet -hedging. Management strategies that reduce variance in population size will also reduce risk of extinction. Asynchrony in population Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area. It is advisable to optimise dialyser efficiency to the smallest surface area possible, adjusting treatment prescription. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy.

Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate. The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.

Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area? Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area , associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries.

The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on subjects 97 females, 58 males, mean age The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region.

The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Betting is loving and bettors are predators: a conceptual metaphor approach to online sports betting advertising. Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s.

As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius.

For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability. Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0. Nugent, C. The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling.

Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux.

Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images. A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s.

As a tool, a result of the second author and J The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius Large area , surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source. Large area , surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet VUV light source is disclosed.

Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

High surface area carbon and process for its production. Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas , porosities, sub-nm Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas.

The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces.

In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m samples and in the sides of the same samples as well as an area of ha 1 sample each six hectare.

Geomorphic surfaces GS in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field.

Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment. Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling online or offline to identify those with an online gambling problem.

Identifying most problematic form of online gambling e. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: 1 determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting ; 2 compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4, Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status.

Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting , higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for. Full Text Available Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems.

Sports betting : can gamblers beat randomness? Although skills are not considered relevant in chance-governed activities, only a few studies have assessed the extent to which sport expert skills in wagering are a manifestation of the illusion of control. This study examined a whether expert hockey bettors could make better predictions than chance, b whether expert hockey bettors could achieve greater monetary gains than chance, and c what kind of strategies hockey gamblers rely on when betting.

Accordingly, 30 participants were asked to report their state lottery hockey bets on 6 occasions. We suggest that the information used by bettors, along with near-misses, reinforces their perception of expertise. The results of this experiment suggest that the so-called "skills" of the sports bettors are cognitive distortions.

Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil biodiesel. The nitrogen adsorption measurements BET revealed a high surface area Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Randomized controlled trial. Patients aged 18 - 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin type III-V were divided into two equal groups having 74 patients each.

Detailed history was taken and Wood's lamp examination done to rule out mixed and dermal melasma. Melasma area and severity index MASI score was calculated for every patient. Priming was done for all patients with tretinoin cream applied once daily at night for 2 weeks, and to use a broad spectrum sun block cream before sun exposure. Patients in group Awere subjected to combined treatment, i. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. After completion of treatment, MASI score was recalculated. Proportion of patients with significant MASI score reduction was compared using chi-square test with significance at p magnesium ascorbyl phosphate cream was significantly more effective than trichloro-acetic acid peel alone in treatment of melasma.

Hand-foot skin reaction is recognized as one of the most common adverse events related to multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but an effective prevention method has not been identified. The chief aim of this study was to find a mechanism-based preventive method for the skin toxicity induced by sorafenib using vitamin C derivatives.

The effects of ascorbyl phosphate magnesium P-VC-Mg on the molecular and pathological changes induced by sorafenib were investigated in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The cell growth inhibition and apoptotic effects of sorafenib were attenuated by P-VC-Mg. Moreover, P-VC-Mg inhibited the decrease of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 STAT3 phosphorylation and the expression of apoptosis suppressors treated by sorafenib.

Interestingly, after exposure to sorafenib in a three dimensional 3D skin model assay, the basal layer was significantly thickened and the granular and spinous layers became thinner. In contrast, after exposure to sorafenib with P-VC-Mg, the thickness of the basal, granular, and spinous layers was similar to that of the control image. These findings suggest that P-VC-Mg attenuates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and pathological changes in human keratinocyte cells and in the 3D skin model mediated by the maintenance of STAT3 activity.

Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system.

Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system.

Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations. The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate AP and sodium ascorbyl phosphate SAP are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care.

Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP in oil phase and SAP in aqueous phase via multiple emulsion ME 1 for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. Multiple emulsions ME 1 and control were prepared and analyzed for physical stability. A good antioxidant activity of ME 1 was observed. It was concluded that combined AP and SAP supplementations to skin proved a promising choice for controlling facial sebum secretions and could be evaluated for undesired oily skin and acne reductions for beautifying the facial appearance.

Magnesium phosphate , dibasic Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia. PubMed Central. Trip, Mieke D. Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate DASP and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate DACP.

Results The drug was well tolerated at each single or multiple dose level. After 4 weeks of treatment, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C levels changed by 2. The resin cylinders were made by Tygon matrices. Microshear bond strength test was performed using universal testing machine with a 50N load at a speed of 0.

Magnesium phosphate di- and tribasic. Magnesium-phosphate -glass cements with ceramic-type properties. Rapid setting magnesium phosphate Mg glass cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics.

The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present.

The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties.

Rapid setting magnesium phosphate Mg glass cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates , calcium magnesium phosphates , and hydroxyapatites.

As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability.

AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts.

Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. All rights reserved. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate. Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate CaP are carried out using simulated body fluid SBF , calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity.

The most common phase is hydroxyapatite HAp , an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium , zinc, strontium etc. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates.

X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate.

A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate ACP phase. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

Ascorbic acid AA possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action. In contrast, torisodium ascorbyl 6-palmitate 2- phosphate APPS treatment significantly enhanced the cellular AA level in skin cells despite the presence of inhibitors.

Furthermore, APPS markedly repressed the intracellular superoxide generation and promoted viability associated with an enhanced AA level in Sod1-deficient skin cells. These findings indicate that APPS effectively restores the AA level and normalizes the redox balance in skin cells in an AA transporter-independent manner.

A study of phosphate absorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate. A study of the mechanism of phosphate adsorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate, [Mg 2. Calcium, phosphate , and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels.

Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate , and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate , and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. Renal control of calcium, phosphate , and magnesium homeostasis. Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder. A new method for combining magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate to form an inexpensive compactible ceramic to stabilize very low solubility metal oxides, ashes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast, and to reinforce and strengthen the ceramics formed by the addition of fibers to the initial ceramic mixture.

Calcium, magnesium , and phosphate abnormalities in the emergency department. Derangements of calcium, magnesium , and phosphate are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These minerals have vital roles in the cellular physiology of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. This article describes the pathophysiology of these mineral disorders.

It aims to provide the emergency practitioner with an overview of the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Fabrication and cytocompatibility of spherical magnesium ammonium phosphate granules. In the present work, we used a struvite forming calcium doped magnesium phosphate cement with the formulation Ca0. For the fabrication of spherical granules, the cement paste was dispersed in a lipophilic liquid and stabilized by surfactants. The granules were characterized with respect to morphology, size distribution, phase composition, compressive strength, biocompatibility and solubility.

In general, it was seen that small granules can hardly be produced by means of emulsification, when the raw material is a hydraulic paste, because long setting times promote coalescence of initially small unhardened cement droplets. This resulted in granules with 97 wt.

Microwave assisted synthesis of amorphous magnesium phosphate nanospheres. Magnesium phosphate MgP materials have been investigated in recent years for tissue engineering applications, attributed to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The as-produced AMP nanospheres were characterized and tested in vitro. The results proved these AMP nanospheres can self-assemble into mature MgP materials and support cell proliferation.

It is expected such AMP has potential in biomedical applications. Antimicrobial properties and dentin bonding strength of magnesium phosphate cements. The main objective of this work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and the dentin-bonding strength of novel magnesium phosphate cements MPC. The MPC had appropriate setting times for hard tissue applications, high early compressive strengths and higher strength of bonding to dentin than commercial mineral trioxide aggregate cement.

Bacteriological studies were performed with fresh and aged cements against three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic and in biofilm and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. These bacteria have been associated with infected implants, as well as other frequent hard tissue related infections. Extracts of different compositions of MPC had bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties against the three bacterial strains tested.

This was associated mainly with a synergistic effect between the high osmolarity and alkaline pH of the MPC. These intrinsic antimicrobial properties make MPC preferential candidates for applications in dentistry, such as root fillers, pulp capping agents and cavity liners. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The physiology of calcium and the other minerals involved in its metabolism is complex and intimately linked to the physiology of bone. Five principal humoral factors are involved in maintaining plasma concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphate and in coordinating the balance between their content in bone.

The transmembrane transport of these elements is dependent on a series of complex mechanisms that are partly controlled by these hormones. The plasma concentration of calcium is initially sensed by a calcium-sensing receptor, which then sets up a cascade of events that initially determines parathyroid hormone secretion and eventually results in a specific action within the target organs, mainly bone and kidney.

This chapter describes the physiology of these humoral factors and relates them to the pathological processes that give rise to disorders of calcium, phosphate and magnesium metabolism as well as of bone metabolism.

This chapter also details the stages in the calcium cascade, describes the effects of calcium on the various target organs, gives details of the processes by which phosphate and magnesium are controlled and summarises the metabolism of vitamin D. The pathology of disorders of bone and calcium metabolism is described in detail in the relevant chapters. Karger AG, Basel. Microwave-assisted magnesium phosphate coating on the AZ31 magnesium alloy.

Due to the combination of many unique properties, magnesium alloys have been widely recognized as suitable metallic materials for fabricating degradable biomedical implants. However, the extremely high degradation kinetics of magnesium alloys in the physiological environment have hindered their clinical applications. This paper reports for the first time the use of a novel microwave-assisted coating process to deposit magnesium phosphate MgP coatings on the Mg alloy AZ31 and improve its in vitro corrosion resistance.

Newberyite and trimagnesium phosphate hydrate TMP layers with distinct features were fabricated at various processing times and temperatures. Subsequently, the corrosion resistance, degradation behavior, bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the MgP coated AZ31 samples were investigated. The potentiodynamic polarization tests reveal that the corrosion current density of the AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid SBF is significantly suppressed by the deposited MgP coatings.

Additionally, it is seen that MgP coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of the AZ31 alloy after immersion in SBF for two weeks and promoted precipitation of apatite particles. The high viability of preosteoblast cells cultured with extracts of coated samples indicates that the MgP coatings can improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. These attractive results suggest that MgP coatings, serving as the protective and bioactive layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys.

Development of magnesium calcium phosphate biocement for bone regeneration. Magnesium calcium phosphate biocement MCPB with rapid-setting characteristics was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide MgO and calcium dihydrogen phosphate Ca H 2 PO 4 2. The results revealed that the MCPB hardened after mixing the powders with water for about 7 min, and the compressive strength reached 43 MPa after setting for 1 h, indicating that the MCPB had a short setting time and high initial mechanical strength.

The MG 63 cells with normal phenotype spread well on the MCPB surfaces, and were attached in close proximity to the substrate, as seen by scanning electron microscopy SEM. The results demonstrated that the MCPB had a good ability to support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and exhibited good cytocompatibility.

Using a combination phosphate binder may reduce pill burden and encourage patient compliance. In addition to calcium and phosphate , it is imperative to diligently monitor magnesium levels in patients started on this medication, as magnesium levels may increase with longer duration of use. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of this combination phosphate binder.

Phosphate recovery through struvite precipitation by CO2 removal: effect of magnesium , phosphate and ammonium concentrations. The precipitation of struvite was done from supersaturated solutions in which precipitation was induced by the increase of the solution supersaturation concomitant with the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide.

The effect of magnesium , phosphate and ammonium concentrations on the kinetics and the efficiency of struvite precipitation was measured monitoring the respective concentrations in solution. The increase of magnesium concentration in the supersaturated solutions, resulted for all phosphate concentration tested, in significantly higher phosphate removal efficiency. Moreover, it is interesting to note that in this case the adhesion of the suspended struvite crystals to the reactor walls was reduced suggesting changes in the particle characteristics.

The increase of phosphate concentration in the supersaturated solutions, for the magnesium concentrations tested resulted to the reduction of struvite suppression which reached complete suppression of the precipitate formation. Excess of ammonium in solution was found favour struvite precipitation. Contrary to the results found with increasing the magnesium concentration in solution, higher ammonium concentrations resulted to higher adhesion of the precipitated crystallites to the reactor walls.

The results of the present work showed that it is possible to recover phosphorus in the form of struvite from wastewater reducing water pollution and at the same time saving valuable resources. Three type mixtures of magnesium phosphate cement with emulsified asphalt for evaluation their properties. The mixtures of the samples were fabricated and allowed them 2 hours, seven and twenty eight days curing before tested by compressive strength, Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength to probe into their engineering properties.

The test results show that all tests have the greatest values at the 28 days curing and too much asphalt emulsion may cause too soft as result of low stability. The compressive strength of Type-III mixture has the greatest value, no matter what curing time is.

The Marshall stability test and indirect tensile strength of the Type-III mixture are qualified by the specification required for fast maintenance. The more asphalt emulsion added, the less compressive strength has. Magnesium potassium phosphate cement MKPC is a kind of cementitious binder in which the chemical bond is formed via a heterogeneous acid-base reaction between dead burned magnesia powder and potassium phosphate solution at room temperature.

Small amount of boron compounds can be incorporated in the cement as a setting retarder. However, the mechanisms and procedures through which this crystalline product is formed and the conditions under which the crystallization process would be influenced are not yet clear. Understanding of the reaction mechanism of the system is helpful for developing new methodologies to control the rapid reaction process and furthermore, to adjust the phase assemblage of the binder, and to enhance the macroscopic properties.

This study is mainly focused on the examination of the reaction mechanism of MKPC. In addition, the formulation optimization, microstructure characterization and field application in rapid repair are also systematically studied. The chemical reactions between magnesia and potassium dihydrogen phosphate are essentially an acid-base reaction with strong heat release, the pH and temperature variation throughout the reaction process could provide useful information to disclose the different stages in the reaction.

However, it would be very difficult to conduct such tests on the cement paste due to the limited water content and fast setting. In the current research, the reaction mechanism of MKPC is investigated on the diluted MKPC system through monitoring the pH and temperature development, identification of the solid phase formed, and measurement of the ionic concentration of the solution.

The reaction process can be explained as follows: when magnesia and potassium phosphate powder are mixed with water, phosphate is readily dissolved, which is instantly followed by the dissociation of. Magnesium , an essential mineral for human health, plays a pivotal role in the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies in the general population have found an association between lower dietary magnesium intake and an elevated risk of cardiovascular events.

In addition, magnesium supplementation was shown to improve blood pressure control, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease CKD has been increasingly investigated as it is becoming evident that magnesium can inhibit vascular calcification, a prominent risk of cardiovascular events, which commonly occurs in CKD patients.

Cohort studies in patients receiving dialysis have shown a lower serum magnesium level as a significant risk for cardiovascular mortality. Interestingly, the cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia is alleviated among those with high serum magnesium levels, consistent with in vitro evidence that magnesium inhibits high- phosphate induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells.

Furthermore, a harmful effect of high phosphate on the progression of CKD is also attenuated among those with high serum magnesium levels. The potential usefulness of magnesium as a remedy for phosphate toxicity should be further explored by future intervention studies. Serum phosphate and magnesium in children recovering from severe acute undernutrition in Ethiopia: an observational study. Children with severe acute malnutrition SAM have increased requirements for phosphorus and magnesium during recovery.

If requirements are not met, the children may develop refeeding hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. However, little is known about the effect of current therapeutic diets F and F on serum phosphate S- phosphate and magnesium S- magnesium in children with SAM. Prospective observational study, with measurements of S- phosphate and S- magnesium at admission, prior to rehabilitation phase and at discharge in children aged months admitted with SAM to Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia.

At admission, mean S- phosphate was 0. Mean S- magnesium , at admission, was 0. Both S- phosphate and S- magnesium at admission were positively associated with serum albumin S-albumin , but not with anthropometric characteristics or co-diagnoses. Using diluted F for stabilization was not associated with lower S- phosphate or S- magnesium. Hypophosphatemia was common among children with SAM at admission, and still subnormal in about half of the children at discharge.

This could be problematic for further recovery as phosphorus is needed for catch-up growth and local diets are likely to be low in bioavailable phosphorus. The high S- magnesium levels at discharge does not support that magnesium should be a limiting nutrient for growth in the F diet. Although diluted F In situ synthesis of magnesium -substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation.

The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does.

In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution. Calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys for biomedical applications: a review. Magnesium has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for use as an orthopaedic material.

As a biocompatible and degradable metal, it has several advantages over the permanent metallic materials currently in use, including eliminating the effects of stress shielding, improving biocompatibility concerns in vivo and improving degradation properties, removing the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal.

The rapid degradation of magnesium , however, is a double-edged sword as it is necessary to control the corrosion rates of the materials to match the rates of bone healing. In response, calcium phosphate coatings have been suggested as a means to control these corrosion rates. The potential calcium phosphate phases and their coating techniques on substrates are numerous and can provide several different properties for different applications. The reactivity and low melting point of magnesium , however, require specific parameters for calcium phosphate coatings to be successful.

Within this review, an overview of the different calcium phosphate phases, their properties and their behaviour in vitro and in vivo has been provided, followed by the current coating techniques used for calcium phosphates that may be or may have been adapted for magnesium substrates. Inhibitory effect of phosphates on magnesium lactate efflorescence formation in dry-fermented sausages. This study aimed to prevent the phenomena of efflorescence formation on the surface of dry fermented sausages due to the complexation of efflorescence forming cations with phosphates.

Efflorescence formation is a critical issue constituting a major quality defect, especially of dry fermented sausages. Different phosphates di- and hexametaphosphate were added 3. As a hypothesis, these additives should complex with one of the main efflorescence-causing substances such as magnesium.

The formation of efflorescences was determined for dry fermented sausages without phosphate addition, with diphosphate, or hexametaphosphate addition during 8weeks of storage under modified atmosphere. The visual analyses of the sausage surface revealed high amounts of efflorescences for the control This inhibition was a result of strong complexation of hexametaphosphate with magnesium ions, thus preventing the diffusion of magnesium towards the sausage surface.

This can be explained by the magnesium content on the sausage surface that increased by The mass transport of lactate and creatine was not affected by phosphate addition. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed that, theoretically, 4. To facilitate their analysis, also recorded were the spectra of partially deuterated analogues with varying content of deuterium. The effects of deuteration and those of lowering the temperature were the basis of the conclusions drawn regarding the origin of the observed bands which were assigned to vibrations which are predominantly localized in the water molecules four crystallographically different types of such molecules exist in the structures and those with PO character.

It was concluded that in some cases coupling of phosphate and water vibrations is likely to take place. The appearance of the infrared spectra in the O-H stretching regions of the infrared spectra is explained as being the result of an extensive overlap of bands due to components of the fundamental stretching modes of the H2O units with a possible participation of bands due to second-order transitions.

A broad band reminiscent of the B band of the well-known ABC trio characteristic of spectra of substances containing strong hydrogen bonds in their structure was found around cm-1 in the infrared spectra of the two studied compounds. Electronic absorption spectrum of copper-doped magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate. The optical absorption and EPR spectra of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate MPPH doped with copper ions are recorded both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures.

The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital coefficients are evaluated. A correlation between EPR and optical absorption studies is drawn. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion. This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules.

The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal G:M and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite- magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater.

An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible. Hydrogels composed of two-dimensional 2D nanomaterials have become an important alternative to replace traditional inorganic scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we describe a novel nanocrystalline material with 2D morphology that was synthesized by tuning the crystallization of the sodium- magnesium-phosphate system. We discovered that the sodium ion can regulate the precipitation of magnesium phosphate by interacting with the crystal's surface causing a preferential crystal growth that results in 2D morphology.

The 2D nanomaterial gave rise to a physical hydrogel that presented extreme thixotropy, injectability, biocompatibility, bioresorption, and long-term stability. The nanocrystalline material was characterized in vitro and in vivo and we discovered that it presented unique biological properties. In summary, the 2D magnesium phosphate nanosheets could bring a paradigm shift in the field of minimally invasive orthopedic and craniofacial interventions because it is the only material available that can be injected through high gauge needles into bone defects in order to accelerate bone healing and osseointegration.

Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosan. Ascorbyl chitosan was synthesized by heating chitosan with ascorbic acid in isopropanol. Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosans were evaluated. The ascorbyl chitosans demonstrated to have increased lipid-lowering activity in comparison to chitosan alone upon contact with human blood serum in in vitro conditions. The lipid-lowering activity increased with ascorbyl substitution. The inherent nonspecific adsorption capability of chitosan due to its chelating power with several different functional groups was exhibited by ascorbyl chitosans as well.

This behavior was exemplified in a simultaneous decrease in the total iron values of the volunteers together with lower lipid levels. Furthermore, ascorbyl chitosans were observed to have less hemocompatibility but increased anticoagulant activity when compared to chitosan alone. Additional in vivo studies are necessary to support these results and to investigate further the advantages and disadvantages of these materials to prove their safety prior to clinical applications.

Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy for modification of degradation behavior. Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone, but its high susceptibility to corrosion has limited its application in orthopedics. In this study, a calcium phosphate coating is formed on magnesium alloy AZ31 to control its degradation rate and enhance its bioactivity and bone inductivity.

The composition, phase structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. Bonding strength of the coatings and substrate was MPa in this study. The coatings significantly decrease degradation rate of the original Mg alloy, indicating that the Mg alloy with calcium phosphate coating is a promising degradable bone material. Macroscopic and microscopic variation in recovered magnesium phosphate materials: implications for phosphorus removal processes and product re-use.

Phosphorus P recovery and re-use will become increasingly important for water quality protection and sustainable nutrient cycling as environmental regulations become stricter and global P reserves decline. The objective of this study was to examine and characterize several magnesium phosphates recovered from actual wastewater under field conditions. Three types of particles were examined including crystalline magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate struvite recovered from dairy wastewater, crystalline magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrate dittmarite recovered from a food processing facility, and a heterogeneous product also recovered from dairy wastewater.

The struvite crystals had regular and consistent shape, size, and structure, and SEM-EDS analysis clearly showed the struvite crystals as a surface precipitate on calcium phosphate seed material. In contrast, the dittmarite crystals showed no evidence of seed material, and were not regular in size or shape.

The XRD analysis identified no crystalline magnesium phosphates in the heterogeneous product and indicated the presence of sand particles. However, magnesium phosphate precipitates on calcium phosphate seed material were observed in this product under SEM-EDS examination. These substantial variations in the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of magnesium phosphates recovered under field conditions could affect their potential for beneficial re-use and underscore the need to develop recovery processes that result in a uniform, consistent product.

Triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate were used as P, Ca and Mg precursors. Phase percentages, crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters were investigated. Based on the results of this study, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity and crystallite size decreased with magnesium content.

In addition, with increasing magnesium content, the amount of CaO phase decreased whereas the amount of MgO phase increased significantly. Obtained results can be used for new biomaterials design. Magnesium prevents phosphate -induced vascular calcification via TRPM7 and Pit-1 in an aortic tissue culture model. Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that magnesium may prevent vascular calcification VC , but mechanistic characterization has not been reported.

This study investigated the influence of increasing magnesium concentrations on VC in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in serum-supplemented high- phosphate medium for 10 days. The magnesium concentration in this medium was increased to demonstrate its role in preventing VC, which was assessed by imaging and spectroscopy. Magnesium supplementation of high- phosphate medium dose-dependently suppressed VC quantified as aortic calcium content , and almost ablated it at 2.

The inhibitory effect of magnesium supplementation on VC was partially reduced by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate, an inhibitor of TRPM7. Furthermore, phosphate transporter-1 Pit-1 protein expression was increased in tissues cultured in HP medium and was gradually-and dose dependently-decreased by magnesium. To evaluate the genotoxicity of a magnesium alloy coated with beta-tricalcium phosphate beta-TCP. Four groups were designed. In the first group, AZ31B magnesium alloy surface was coated with beta-TCP using chemical bath deposition, and in the second group magnesium alloy was tested.

The other two groups were negative control pure titanium and positive control groups 0. Single cell gel electrophoresis was adopted to investigate genotoxicity of the alloy samples in different groups, and 60 cells from each group were analysed. Tail moment and tail DNA percentage were used as reliable indicators to show DNA damage in lymphocytes induced by every testing sample. There were no significant differences in tail moment and tail DNA percentage between magnesium alloy group [ 0.

Tail moment and tail DNA percentage in negative group were 0. Strong and tough magnesium wire reinforced phosphate cement composites for load-bearing bone replacement. Calcium phosphate cements are brittle biomaterials of low bending strength. One promising approach to improve their mechanical properties is reinforcement with fibers.

State of the art degradable reinforced composites contain fibers made of polymers, resorbable glass or whiskers of calcium minerals. We introduce a new class of composite that is reinforced with degradable magnesium alloy wires. Hybrid reinforcement with metal and polymer fibers PLA further improved the qualitative fracture behavior and gave indication of enhanced strength and ductility.

Immersion tests of composites in SBF for seven weeks showed high corrosion stability of ZEK wires and slow degradation of the magnesium calcium phosphate cement by struvite dissolution. Finally, in vitro tests with the osteoblast-like cell line MG63 demonstrate cytocompatibility of the composite materials. Performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation in pig manure composting.

This study investigated the performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting with cornstalk as the bulking agent. Results show that phosphogypsum increased nitrous oxide N 2 O emission, but significantly reduced ammonia NH 3 emission and thus enhanced the mineral and total nitrogen TN contents in compost.

Although N 2 O emission could be reduced by adding calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, NH 3 emission was considerably increased, resulting in an increase in TN loss during composting. By blending these two additives, both NH 3 and N 2 O emissions could be mitigated, achieving effective nitrogen conservation in composting. Magnesium modifies the association between serum phosphate and the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

It is known that magnesium antagonizes phosphate -induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and prevents vascular calcification. Here we tested whether magnesium can also counteract other pathological conditions where phosphate toxicity is involved, such as progression of chronic kidney disease CKD. We explored how the link between the risk of CKD progression and hyperphosphatemia is modified by magnesium status.

A post hoc analysis was run in non-diabetic CKD patients who were divided into four groups according to the median values of serum magnesium and phosphate. During a median follow-up of 44 months, patients developed end-stage kidney disease ESKD. After adjustment for relevant clinical factors, patients in the lower magnesium -higher phosphate group were at a 2. There were no significant differences in the risk of these renal outcomes among the higher magnesium -higher phosphate group and both lower phosphate groups.

Incubation of tubular epithelial cells in high phosphate and low magnesium medium in vitro increased apoptosis and the expression levels of profibrotic and proinflammatory cytokine; these changes were significantly suppressed by increasing magnesium concentration.

Thus, magnesium may act protectively against phosphate -induced kidney injury. Phosphate conversion coating reduces the degradation rate and suppresses side effects of metallic magnesium implants in an animal model. Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties for the development of degradable implants.

However, rapid implant corrosion and gas accumulations in tissue impede clinical applications. With time, the implant degradation rate is reduced by a highly biocompatible, phosphate -containing corrosion layer.

To circumvent initial side effects after implantation it was attempted to develop a simple in vitro procedure to generate a similarly protective phosphate corrosion layer. To this end magnesium samples were pre-incubated in phosphate solutions. The resulting coating was well adherent during routine handling procedures. It completely suppressed the initial burst of corrosion and it reduced the average in vitro magnesium degradation rate over 56 days almost two-fold.

In a small animal model phosphate coatings on magnesium implants were highly biocompatible and abrogated the appearance of gas cavities in the tissue. After implantation, the phosphate coating was replaced by a layer with an elemental composition that was highly similar to the corrosion layer that had formed on plain magnesium implants.

The data demonstrate that a simple pre-treatment could improve clinically relevant properties of magnesium -based implants. Mechanical, degradation and cytocompatibility properties of magnesium coated phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composites. A previous study utilising 'single fibre' fragmentation tests found that coating with magnesium improved the fibre and matrix interfacial shear strength.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a magnesium coating on the manufacture and characterisation of a random chopped fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composite. The degradation behaviour water uptake, mass loss and pH change of the media of these polycaprolactone composites as well as of pure polycaprolactone was investigated in phosphate buffered saline.

The Mg coated fibre reinforced composites revealed less water uptake and mass loss during degradation compared to the non-coated composites. Both flexural and tensile properties were investigated and a higher retention of mechanical properties was obtained for the Mg coated fibre reinforced composite samples up to 10 days immersion in PBS.

Cytocompatibility study showed both composite samples coated and non-coated had good cytocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cell line. Study on the injectability of a novel glucose modified magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramic. In this work, the influence of glucose on the properties of MKPCBC, such as the setting time, compressive strength and hydration heat, was investigated. Published by Elsevier B. The influence of phosphate , calcium and magnesium on matrix Gla-protein and vascular calcification: a systematic review.

MGP is synthesized by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells VSMC and the absence or inactivity of MGP results in excessive calcification of both growth plate and vasculature. Apart from its vitamin K dependency little is known about other factors that influence MGP metabolism.

Phosphate , calcium and magnesium are involved in bone mineralization and play an important role in VC. In this review we provide a summary of the effect of phosphate , calcium, and magnesium on MGP metabolism. Elevated phosphate and calcium levels promote VC, in part by increasing the release of matrix vesicles MV that under the influence of calcium and phosphate become calcification competent.

Phosphate and calcium simultaneously induce an upregulation of MGP protein and gene expression, which possibly inhibits calcification. On the contrary, elevated calcium concentrations caused a decrease of MGPloading in MV, which might in part explainthe calcifying effects of MV. Magnesium is a known inhibitor of VC. However, magnesium has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on MGP synthesis induced through downregulation of the calcium-sensing receptor and hereby causing a decrease in calcium induced MGP upregulation.

In conclusion there is a clear interaction between MGP and phosphate , calcium and magnesium. The upregulation of MGP by phosphate and calcium might be a cellular response that possibly results in the mitigation of VC. Effect of raw material ratios on the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics.

The compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics is important in biomedical field. In this work, the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics was investigated with different liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios. X-ray diffractometer was applied to characterize its phase composition.

The microstructure was imaged using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the compressive strength of the chemically bonded ceramics increased with the decrease of liquid-to-solid ratio due to the change of the packing density and the crystallinity of hydrated product. However, with the increase of MgO-to-KH2PO4 weight ratio, its compressive strength increased firstly and then decreased.

However, the low value of compressive strength with the higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratio might be caused by lack of the joined phase in the hydrated product. Besides, it has been found that the microstructures were different in these two cases by the scanning electron microscope. Colloidal structure appeared for the samples with lower liquid-to-solid and higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios possibly because of the existence of amorphous hydrated products.

The optimization of both liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios was important to improve the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics. Magnesium phosphate cements for endodontic applications with improved long-term sealing ability. The experimental cements, which consisted of mixtures of magnesium oxide with different phosphate salts, were characterized for setting time, injectability, porosity, compressive strength and phase composition.

The long-term sealing ability of the experimental MPCs applied in single-rooted teeth as root canal filling material or as sealer in combination with gutta-percha was also assessed using a highly sensitive fluid filtration system. A mineral trioxide aggregate MTA cement was used as control. Statistical analysis was performed with two- or three-way analysis of variance anova and Tukey's test was used for comparisons. The initial setting time of the experimental cements was between 6 and 9 min, attaining high early compressive strength values MPa within 2 h.

Nutrients recovery from urine to close the nutrient loop is one of the most attractive benefits of source separation in wastewater management. The current study presents an investigation of the thermodynamic modeling of the recovery of P and K from synthetic urine via the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate MPP.

The thermodynamic model formulated on chemical software PHREEQC could well fit the experimental results via comparing the simulated and measured concentrations of K and P in equilibrium. Precipitation potentials of three struvite-type compounds were calculated through thermodynamic modeling. To optimize the K recovery, ammonium should be removed prior as much as possible and an alternative alkaline compound should be explored for pH adjustment rather than NaOH.

The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to a rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The ground state wavefunction is also determined. The g-anisotropy is evaluated and compared with the experimental value. With the help of an optical study, the nature of the bonding in the complex is discussed. Bone regeneration capacity of magnesium phosphate cements in a large animal model.

Magnesium phosphate minerals have captured increasing attention during the past years as suitable alternatives for calcium phosphate bone replacement materials. Cements formed at powder to liquid ratios PLR of 2. The results showed cement degradation in concert with new bone formation at both defect locations. The struvite cement formed with a PLR of 2. Tartrat-resistant acid phosphatase TRAP staining indicated osteoclastic resorption at the cement surface. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis EDX revealed that small residual cement particles were mostly accumulated in the bone marrow in between newly formed bone trabeculae.

Mechanical loading did not significantly increase bone formation associated with cement degradation. Concluding, struvite-forming cements might be promising bone replacement materials due to their good degradation which is coupled with new bone formation. Recently, the interest in magnesium phosphate cements MPC for bone substitution increased, as they exhibit high initial strength, comparably elevated degradation potential and the release of valuable magnesium ions.

Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C.

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Betting line for alabama vs clemson For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2. The physiology of calcium and the other minerals involved in its metabolism is complex and intimately linked to the physiology of bone. Hypophosphatemia is commonly associated with disease and decreased productivity in dairy cows particularly in early lactation. The spacing between OCP tips of 0. HB : Transfers and appropriates money for unemployment compensation.
Skin de asa lvl 4 para mutual betting Effects northumberland plate 2021 betting expertise on football betting. Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems RAS provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. The MPC had appropriate setting times for hard tissue applications, high early compressive strengths and higher strength of bonding to dentin than commercial mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Gouge temperature, measured at the edge of the stationary sample during seismic fault motion, increased to around oC under dry conditions, but increased up to oC under wet conditions. HB : Provides for procedures regarding public school closures related to the coronavirus disease ; appropriating funds. From stations South Grafton to Telarah. Also, brought the legalization of online lottery sales in Illinois.
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Mobile top cat sports betting Sole Agents for. SB : Provides provisions for certain employee benefits when such employee is subject to a mandatory or precautionary order of quarantine or isolation due to COVID Despite this clear bias, betting against the most popular public wagers is not found to earn statistically significant profits. Geomorphic surfaces GS in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. Calcium, phosphateand magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. State of the art degradable reinforced composites contain fibers made of polymers, resorbable glass or whiskers of calcium minerals.

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