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Before him, Fernando Alonso raced for five seasons for the Maranello squad, taking part in 96 Grands Prix, winning 11 and long before that, the Marquis Alfonso de Portago raced in five GPs for Ferrari, his best result being a second place in the British Grand Prix. Seat fit for Leclerc. This morning, the alarm went off at dawn because we had some very early meetings before going out on track.
One of the most special moments for me today was when I arrived at the circuit and I saw the Ferrari with my number 55 on it! I was eager to jump in the car and that first installation lap was exciting. We were able to get through an extensive programme and I was able to familiarise myself with the whole setup: the engineers and mechanics, the steering wheel, the procedures which are obviously a bit different to those on the car I drove last season.
I am very happy and could not have wished for a better start. Bottas has not exactly been at his best, but there are few tracks that he enjoys competing on more. In , he secured pole in qualifying before finishing second.
Bottas to win. Since Formula 1 returned to Russia in , Lewis Hamilton has won more races there than anyone else, finishing top of the pile on three occasions. Mercedes have an even better record in Russia, Bottas and Nico Rosberg winning in and respectively while driving for the Silver Arrows.
This time around, he is the most in-form contender going into qualifying, taking 68 points from his last three races. Hamilton, by contrast, has taken Leclerc will have one eye over his shoulder as he looks to move clear of Verstappen and continue building momentum in the second half of the season.
A former sports trader, John has an unquestioned thirst for sports knowledge and often fills his time playing fantasy or placing wagers online. All Predictions by John Abrams. As eyes turn across the Black Sea, the British driver is going to have to get back on form soon or questions will be asked. By: John Abrams. Betting Tips. Best Odds. Lewis Hamilton to win the race — 2. Join Betstar Today. Our Betting Tips. Lewis Hamilton. Charles Leclerc.
Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. In Study 1, 8, participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: km, In Study 2, 5, participants, who lived within a km driving distance from the Montreal casino , were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, km driving distances.
A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation at the provincial and Montreal levels and expenditure at the provincial level only but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling. In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling-related problems.
It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions. This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort.
We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors.
Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the game theory behind self-contained smart contract provably fair casinos , how they can be gamed by attackers with a large amount of money and computing power, as well as what are the necessary conditions to assure the system cannot be taken advantage of under various configurations.
Conflictual relations between the owners of Foxwoods Casino and Resort, who are American Indians, and the white residents of Ledyard and nearby Preston and North Stonington townships in southeastern Connecticut are long-standing. They have flared up on numerous occasions and especially since when the Mashantucket Pequots considered building a….
Social Capital and Casino Gambling in U. This paper empirically analyzes the impact that the spread of casino gambling has on social capital in communities throughout the United States. Social capital is a networking process that translates into an individual's effectiveness in the community and workplace, and binds communities together. Several recent studies have also demonstrated a…. The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises.
The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers' nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers.
Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model's diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to subjects. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients' mental states.
Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i. Over the last years, several comprehensive training programs for problem gambling have been developed and implemented in various casinos around the world. However, the efficacy of these programs has rarely been assessed and evaluated scientifically.
A workshop called "Des gens qui font la difference" People Making a Difference was…. Blackjack in Holland Casino 's : Basic, optimal and winning strategies. This paper considers the cardgame Blackjack according to the rules of Holland Casino 's in the Netherlands.
Expected gains of strategies are derived with simulation and also with analytic tools. New effiency concepts based on the gains of the basic and the optimal strategy are introduced. A general. Fuller, Diana [Univ. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, passed by Congress on October 17, provided tribes with the Federal statute to pursue gaming activities on tribal lands.
Many Native communities contribute to larger regional economies and tourism industries. These casino facilities often include resort-style hotel amenities. Not surprisingly, they are also large consumers of energy, operating 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Tribes with hotels and casinos can implement sustainable design features and not only receive economic gain, but also environmental and community benefits. The intention of this paper is to identify sustainable design opportunities at the Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel and Casino.
This research stems from previous work the researcher conducted and subsequently published for the Illinois Green Business Association. First, the paper reviews what sustainable design is and points of interest when considering sustainable construction. Then, the research examines areas to collect baseline information and identify opportunities in sustainable design for the Mescalero Apache Tribe, Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel and Casino located in New Mexico.
Lastly, the work explores the resources and funding options available to the tribe. Social casino games i. Despite being free to play, social casino games share many similarities to traditional casino games. As such, concerns have been raised as to whether social casino games influences the migration to online gambling among people who have not engaged in such activity see Griffiths in World Online Gambl , To date, however, no empirical research has assessed this possibility.
Thus, the purpose of the present research was to assess the extent to which social casino gamers migrate to online gambling and potential predictors time spent on social casino games, skill building, enhancement and micro-transactions of such migration. Importantly, engagement in micro-transactions was the only unique predictor of migration from social casino gaming to online gambling.
The implications for the potential harms associated with social casino gaming are discussed. Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage. Tribal sovereignty exempts tribal casinos from statewide smoking bans. To conduct a tribally-led assessment to identify the characteristics of casino patrons at Lake of the Torches Resort Casino in Lac du Flambeau WI and their preferences for a smoke-free casino.
A survey was administered from April to August to a stratified random sample of members of the casino players club to assess their preferences for a smoke-free casino. These members were categorized into three groups: those who reported being likely to 1 visit more; 2 visit less; or 3 visit the same if the casino prohibited smoking. Statistical analyses were conducted on weighted data in October to December Weighted logistic regression was calculated to control for potential confounding of patron characteristics.
Patrons more likely to prefer a smoke-free casino tended to be white, elderly, middle class and above, and visit the casino restaurants. Patrons within the lower tiers of the players club, almost half of the players club members, also showed a higher preference for a smoke-free casino.
This tribal casino would likely realize increased patronage associated with smoke-free status while also contributing to improved health for casino workers and patrons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Secondhand smoke and smoking restrictions in casinos : a review of the evidence. There is no safe level of secondhand smoke SHS exposure. This paper reviews the scientific literature on air quality, SHS exposure, health effects and economic outcomes related to SHS and smoking restrictions in casinos , as well as on smoking prevalence among casino patrons and problem gamblers.
Peer reviewed studies published from January to March Evidence from air quality, biomarker and survey studies indicates that smoking in casinos is a significant public health problem. Workers and patrons in casinos that allow smoking are exposed to high levels of SHS, as documented by elevated levels of SHS constituents in the air of casinos and by elevated levels of tobacco-specific biomarkers in non-smokers' blood, urine and saliva.
Partial smoking restrictions in casinos do not effectively protect non-smokers from SHS. Findings suggest that the smoking prevalence of casino patrons is comparable with that of the general public, although this prevalence may be higher among problem gamblers. Few studies have examined the economic impact of smoke-free policies in casinos , and the results of these studies are mixed. Employees and patrons are exposed to SHS in casinos , posing a significant, preventable risk to their health.
Policies completely prohibiting smoking in casinos would be expected to greatly reduce or eliminate SHS exposure in casinos , thereby protecting the health of casino workers and patrons. Casino Rama hits the jackpot with energy-efficient lighting. A lighting retrofit program was conducted by Casino Rama in an effort to improve quality while reducing costs and environmental impacts. With over 25, bulbs in use, the facility had a lot to gain by reducing energy costs.
Toronto Hydro TH Energy Services evaluated the facility's current usage level and recommended ways to increase energy efficiency. The casino used mostly incandescent and fluorescent lights which provided adequate light, but which required a great deal of upkeep.
The operators wanted to relamp the lighting package that consumed the most electricity with high-efficiency lighting systems that would maintain a consistent look with that of the warm-glow provided by incandescent light bulbs. In order to benefit from energy savings, an efficient, non-invasive system was needed with minimal construction costs to retrofit the lighting system.
TH Energy concluded that high-quality, longer-lasting lamps were required. TCP Inc. The retrofit involved the replacement of more than 5, bulbs with over 4, CFLs being installed on the 3 massive canopies over the casino entrance. Long-life LED products lasting up to 50, hours were also used for the glass elevator shaft, which minimized maintenance costs. Cold-cathode lamps that last an average 25, hours were recommended for rapid cycle applications such as signage. The relamping process was completed in 7 working days with minimal disruption to business activity.
The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8 per cent, based. The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8. The money laundering control act and proposed amendments: Its impact on the casino industry. In their efforts to track unreported income, Congress passed the Money Laundering Control Act in However, because of the unique nature of cash and chip transactions within modern casinos , the Act, or state variants of it, have created significant compliance costs for casinos.
This analysis examines the implications of the Act for the casino gaming industry, and evaluates some of the recent suggested Amendments to the Act. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation. Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the s.
Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines.
A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site.
The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it. Virtual addictions: An examination of problematic social casino game use among at-risk gamblers. The overlap of gaming and gambling activities within online digital technologies is of growing relevance to the study of technological addictions.
Social casino games are immensely popular 'free to play' games that offer realistic emulation of financial gambling activities. Their structural similarities might suggest that engagement in social casino games may be particularly risky for people with existing gambling problems. Currently it is not known whether social casino games are used problematically by individuals who also experience problematic gambling, the extent of this overlap, the characteristics of those who experience problems with both activities, and the symptoms of problematic social casino game use they experience.
This study examined a subsample of adults who played social casino games and reported self-identified gambling problems. The results indicated that a greater frequency and diversity of social casino game playing and more frequent and larger expenditure on social casino games was significantly positively associated with symptom severity of problematic social casino game use.
Gamblers who were younger, less educated, spoke a non-English language, and with higher psychological distress, were more likely to report greater problems. Playing social casino games to escape or relieve a negative mood was the most commonly reported symptom. These findings suggest that some problem gamblers may also be at risk of problematic engagement in online gambling activities that lack financial incentives.
Gamblers' concurrent engagement in social casino games therefore warrants further consideration in gambling research studies and clinical practice settings. Taivo Paju. Results indicate that CSAOs detected few changes in student behavior. Campuses close to casinos reported more dropouts and increases in student debt. A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology IT professionals working within the Nevada casino industry.
Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…. Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos. Despite California's statewide smoking ban, exposure to secondhand smoke SHS continues in California's Indian casinos. Few data are available on exposure to airborne fine particles PM2.
We sought to measure PM2. For each casino , the physical dimensions and the number of patrons and smokers were estimated. As a preliminary assessment of representativeness, we also measured eight casinos in Reno, NV. The average PM2. Elevated PM2. Average PM2. The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers" to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables.
The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of Factor analysis, analysis of variance ANOVA and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey.
The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino , "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area.
The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers" to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers.
Market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry. This article discusses the nature of market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry. It presents four approaches for conducting market niche analysis. A detailed examination of the premium niche profile provides a description of the typical premium slot player.
The description of the typical premium player leads to hypotheses regarding needs the unique preference set of the premium player. An analysis of the unique preference set suggests an appropriate enhanced marketing program. A longitudinal study: casino gambling attitudes, motivations, and gambling patterns among urban elders. Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos , and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders.
The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling e. The initial survey consisted of a demographic items, b five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, c questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and d questions about gambling frequency.
The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the participants, over of whom were African-Americans, were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project.
The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults.
This study examined gambling behavior in the context of a newly opening casino , comparing disordered gamblers to non-disordered gamblers, in a population of individuals involved in methadone maintenance treatment. No statistically significant changes in gambling behaviors were observed for disordered gamblers or non-disordered gamblers across time points; however, non-disordered gamblers demonstrated non-significant increases in horse and dog race betting, electronic games, and casino table games.
Future investigation into the longer term effects of opening a new casino on this population may be warranted. As older adults continue to make up a greater proportion of the Canadian population, it becomes more important to understand the implications that their leisure activities have for their physical and mental health. Gambling, in particular, is a form of leisure that is becoming more widely available and has important implications for the mental health and financial well-being of older adults.
This study examines a large sample of casino -going Ontarian adults over the age of 55 and identifies those features of their gambling participation that are associated with problem gambling. Logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the data. Focusing on types of gambling participated in and motivations for visiting the casino , this study finds that several forms of gambling and motivations to gamble are associated with greater risk of problem gambling.
It also finds that some motivations are associated with lower risk of problem gambling. The findings of this study have implications related to gambling availability within an aging population. Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao. This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings.
Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation.
While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level. Ever since its rebirth during Yugoslav times in the s, casino tourism has contributed significantly to the development of the area.
Until recently, casino tourism has been one of the most important forms of tourism in addition to 3S and congress tourism. The purpose of this paper is to determine the contribution of casino tourism to the regional development of the Slovene Istria. To this end, selected socioeconomic indicators were examined and compared with the average indicator rates of regional development at the national level.
The results show that casino tourism is an important factor of regional development. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers. To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke SHS in the workplace.
Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.
Effect of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions and revenue. As part of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act, smoking on the gambling floors of all commercial casinos in Illinois became prohibited. This study examined the effects of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions per-capita and real per-capita adjusted gross receipts using 18 years of data 10 years before and 8 years after the Illinois law went into effect.
We employed a difference-in-difference regression technique using monthly data for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa and Missouri and control for numerous determinants expected to affect casino admissions and revenue. The Smoke-free Illinois Act was found not to be a statistically significant determinant of per-capita casino admissions and of real per-capita gross adjusted receipts in all the models we estimated. The estimates from this study clearly indicated that the Illinois law that banned smoking in casinos has had no significant negative economic consequences for casinos in terms of per-capita admissions or revenues.
No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Effect of casino -related sound, red light and pairs on decision-making during the Iowa gambling task. Casino venues are often characterized by "warm" colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors.
Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light and casino -related sounds, with or without the presence of another participant, on gambling-related behaviors. Eighty non-gamblers participants took part in one of four experimental conditions 20 participants in each condition ; 1 IGT without casino -related sound and under normal white light control , 2 IGT with combined casino -related sound and red light casino alone , 3 IGT with combined casino -related sound, red light and in front of another participant casino competition-implicit , and 4 IGT with combined casino -related sound, red light and against another participant casino competition-explicit.
Results showed that, in contrast to the control condition, participants in the three " casino " conditions did not exhibit slower deck selection reaction time after losses than after rewards. Moreover, participants in the two "competition" conditions displayed lowered deck selection reaction time after losses and rewards, as compared with the control and the " casino alone" conditions. These findings suggest that casino environment may diminish the time used for reflecting and thinking before acting after losses.
These findings are discussed along with the methodological limitations, potential directions for future studies, as well as implications to enhance prevention strategies of abnormal gambling. How important is a casino to a community and how important is a community to a casino : an empirical basis for cooperative marketing between casinos and community tourism promotion agencies.
Cities, towns and communities have developed casinos for several reasons. The first of which is to: attract more tourists, remain competitive with other destinations and more fully utilize the existing tourism infrastructure; the second is to keep local money inside the local economy by giving residents the opportunity to gamble at home. Although several states have Association between casino opening or expansion and risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Few studies have evaluated whether this association is a direct effect of economic resources or is attributable to unmeasured confounding or reverse causation.
We used repeated cross-sectional anthropometric measurements from fitness testing of American Indian children aged years from school districts that encompassed tribal lands in California between and Children in school districts encompassing American Indian tribal lands that either gained or expanded a casino were compared with children in districts with tribal lands that did not gain or expand a casino.
Of the school districts, 57 gained or expanded a casino , 24 had a preexisting casino but did not expand, and 36 never had a casino. Among districts where a casino opened or expanded, the mean change in slots per capita was 13 SD, 19 and the median was 3 IQR, Among American Indian. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming-online gambling link.
Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games.
Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person's personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games.
While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers i. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming—online gambling link.
If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce. Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously.
An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness.
Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator. Frequency of gambling problems among parents of pathological, versus nonpathological, casino gamblers using slot machines. Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling, but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements.
The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino? Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, problem gamblers, and nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption in the gamblers and their parents through the proband.
Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling, and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings.
Diffusion of an economic development policy innovation: explaining the international spread of casino gambling. This study uses an event history analysis to examine the factors that lead to the adoption of casino gambling among 13 nations around the world. Specifically, measures of fiscal stress, economic development, tourism, religiosity, and income levels are tested for their relationship to national decisions to legalize casino gambling.
This study found that economic development needs, as measured by general unemployment rates, were associated with the casino legalization decisions of national governments. Higher unemployment rates were more likely in the years that nations legalized casino gambling. Religiosity, measured by frequency of church attendance, was also found to be a significant barrier in legalization decisions. Measures of fiscal stress, tourism, and income levels were not found to have significant relationships with the legalization decisions.
This is interesting because these factors are often cited in case studies, media reports, and the statements of politicians during legalization processes. This study points to the need for further research in several areas. Further exploration of potential explanatory variables and more appropriate measures of currently theorized factors is warranted.
Another area for further research is the seeming contradictory findings of multiple statistical analyses and multiple anecdotal findings of the impacts of fiscal stress on the casino legalization decision. Most recent input coding schemes in visual-word recognition assume that letter position coding is orthographic rather than phonological in nature e. This assumption has been drawn - in part - by the fact that the transposed-letter effect e.
To reexamine this issue, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which we compared the priming effect for transposed-letter pairs e. Results showed a transposed-letter priming effect for the correctly spelled pairs, but not for the pseudohomophone pairs. This is consistent with the view that letter position coding is primarily orthographic in nature. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.
Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, , for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.
Gambles in casinos are usually set up so that the casino makes a profit in expectation -- as long as gamblers play honestly. How should the casino address this? A common strategy is to selectively kick gamblers out, possibly Besides being potentially useful to casinos , we imagine that similar Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems.
Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study.
A non-participatory observational study was conducted among the Cussec gamblers in a casino in Macao. An analysis of bets confirms our postulation, particularly when the streak of the alternative outcome is long, the latest outcome is frequent, and the gamblers are females.
The findings provide meaningful implications for casino management and public policymakers regarding the minimization of gambling harm. Policies on smoking in the casino workplace and their impact on smoking behavior among employees: Case study of casino workers in Macao. Chan, S. Exposure to second hand smoke SHS is a major health concern, contributing to a range of adverse health effects. Workers in the hospitality industry are often exposed to increased levels of SHS in the workplace, and casino workers in particular have been shown to be exposed to high levels of SHS.
During the past decade, authorities worldwide have introduced smoke-free legislation in enclosed public places, primarily to protect workers from the harmful effects of SHS. Importantly, implementat Continuous weeklong measurements of indoor particle levels in a Minnesota Tribal Casino Resort. Secondhand smoke SHS exposure for workers and patrons in hospitality venues is a persistent and significant public health concern.
Real-time fine particulate matter PM2. The field monitoring provided information on the day of week and time of day variation of SHS exposure, as well as comparisons between smoking and non-smoking areas. Indoor PM2. Gaming floor hourly PM2. Highest PM2. The results show that indoor concentration of PM2. SHS can migrate into adjacent non-smoking areas very quickly.
The casino 's ventilation system did not fully eliminate SHS. A completely smoke-free casino would be the only way to fully protect non-smoking patrons and employees from the dangers of tobacco smoke. This essay powerfully describes the rise of a neoliberal or " casino capitalism" as a punishing state that has been largely ignored by the mainstream media but is actively resisted by young people around the world. I highlight the pervasive use of violence and the celebration of war-like values that are no longer restricted to a….
The section yields a good to excellent cyclostratigraphy. Casino -related deaths in Atlantic City, New Jersey The first legalized casino -hotel opened in Atlantic City, New Jersey in Annually, more than 30 million people visit the "Gambling Capitol of the East Coast.
Most of the victims were elderly white retired men who had previously diagnosed medical conditions. Many of the victims' underlying medical problems are of a type known to be associated with compulsive gambling. The majority of deaths occurred during the afternoon hours on weekends in October, January, and May.
We speculate that the stress of gambling activities may induce sudden cardiac death. We therefore recommend that communities planning to legalize casino gambling mandate that gambling establishments provide emergency health care services for their patrons.
Strategically, every organization follows a specific systematic plan of action to control the service recovery procedures, namely organizational responses. Organizational responses vary due to different approaches and opinions; however, six responses are usually referenced in the literature: timeliness, redress, facilitation, credibility, attentiveness and apology.
Why do young adults gamble online? A qualitative study of motivations to transition from social casino games to online gambling. The present research examined the mechanisms of initiating online gambling among young adults. Of particular interest was whether social casino gaming was noted as part of young adults' experience with online gambling. This is because there is growing concern that social casino gaming may be a 'gateway' to online gambling. Participants noted the role of peer influence as well as incentives e.
Participants also noted a link between social casino games and online gambling. Specifically, several young adults reported migrating to online gambling within a relatively short period after engaging with social casino games. Potential mechanisms that may lead to the migration from social casino games to online gambling included the role of advertisements and the inflated pay out rates on these free to play gambling like games. The results suggest initiatives to prevent the development of disordered gambling should understand the potential of social casino gaming to act as a gateway to online gambling, especially amongst this vulnerable population.
A prospective study of the impact of opening a casino on gambling behaviours: 2- and 4-year follow-ups. It is widely believed that the rate of pathological gambling is related to the accessibility and availability of gambling activities. Few empirical studies have yet been conducted to evaluate this hypothesis.
Using a longitudinal prospective design, the current study evaluates the impact of a casino in Canada's Hull, Quebec region. A random sample of respondents from Hull experimental group and from Quebec City comparison group completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen SOGS and gambling- related questions before the opening of the Hull Casino pretest , 1 year after the opening posttest , and on follow-up at Years 2 and 4.
Although, 1 year after the opening of the casino , we did observe an increase in playing casino games and in the maximum amount of money lost in 1 day's gambling, this trend was not maintained over time 2- and 4-year follow-ups. In the Hull cohort, the rate of at-risk and probable pathological gamblers and the number of criteria on the SOGS did not increase at the 2- and 4-year follow-ups.
The residents' reluctance to open a local casino was generally stable over time following the casino 's opening. The discussion raises different explanatory factors and focuses on the context of the Regional Exposure Model as a potentially more applicable measure of studying the expansion of gambling. Full Text Available Abstract The present research examined the mechanisms of initiating online gambling among young adults.
Urban elders and casino gambling: Are they at risk of a gambling problem? This study examined gambling among older adults and explored the critical predictors of problem gambling behaviors. Relatively unknown and understudied is the extent, or prevalence, of problem gambling behaviors among urban elders and the factors associated with problem gambling.
The sample consisted of randomly selected participants, aged 60 and older, who reside in the City of Detroit. Mental health, health, demographics, social activities, senior optimism, social support network, and frequency of casino visits were examined in order to predict problem gambling behaviors among elders. The results showed that the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors was The findings from this study confirmed that gambling has the potential to become a serious health problem among elders.
Gavarni at the casino : reflections of class and gender in the visual culture of Drawing on cultural history and opposing the idea that British visual culture in has nothing interesting to say about class, politics, and revolution, this article examines a depiction of the London dance-hall Laurent's Casino by Guillaume-Sulpice Chevalier, better known as Paul Gavarni, made to accompany as essay by Albert Smith for the collaborative work "Gavarni in London" The image appeared against the backdrop of revolutions abroad, and just weeks after rioting in Trafalgar Square.
Reconstructing the location of the casino , the history of the venue, the entertainments enjoyed there, and description of its patrons - the gent and his female counterpart - reveals the dynamic performance of class enacted there, and contemporary reactions to that performance. A Casino goes smoke free: a longitudinal study of secondhand and thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure. Secondhand smoke SHS in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke THS.
A casino was visited nine times over a month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit. Exceptionally high levels of THS were found in dust and on surfaces. Although the smoking ban led to immediate improvements in air quality, surface nicotine levels were unchanged and remained very high for the first month of the smoking ban.
However, THS reservoirs contribute to continued low-level exposure to toxicants. To accelerate the effect of smoking bans, remediation efforts should address specific THS reservoirs, which may require intensive cleaning as well as replacement of carpets, furniture and building materials. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.
This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market Singh et al.
J Retail Leisure Property , 6 1 The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble.
Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.
The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians. The legalization of American Indian casino gaming in the late s allows examination of the relationship between income and health in a quasi-experimental way. Revenue from gaming accrues to individual tribes and has been used both to supplement tribe members' income and to finance tribal infrastructure. We assembled annual data from on tribal gaming, health care access from the Area Resource File , and individual health and socioeconomic characteristics data from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System.
We use this information within a structural, difference-in-differences framework to study the effect of casino gaming on tribal members' income, health status, access to health care, and health-related behaviors. Our difference-in-differences framework relies on before-after comparisons among American Indians whose tribe has at some time operated a casino and with-without comparisons between American Indians whose tribe has and those whose tribe has not initiated gaming.
Our results provide identified estimates of the positive effect of gaming on American Indian income and on several indicators of American Indian health, health-related behaviors, and access to health care. Birthday and birthmate problems: misconceptions of probability among psychology undergraduates and casino visitors and personnel.
Subjective estimates and associated confidence ratings for the solutions of some classic occupancy problems were studied in samples of psychology undergraduates, 39 casino visitors, and 34 casino employees. On tasks varying the classic birthday problem, i. Respondents did notedly better on tasks varying the birthmate problem, i. Psychology students and women did better on both task types, but were less confident about their estimates than casino visitors or per sonnel and men.
Several further person variables, such as indicators of topical knowledge and familiarity, were associated with better and more confident performance on birthday problems, but not on birthmate problems. Likewise, higher confidence ratings were related to subjective estimates that were closer to the solutions of birthday problems, but not of birthmate problems. Implications of and possible explanations for these findings, study limitations, directions for further inquiry, and the real-world relevance of ameliorating misconceptions of probability are discussed.
The correlations of work conditions with unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems of casino croupiers in Macau. The Macau economy and employment of residents rely heavily on the gaming industry. It is important that the working conditions in casinos are not harmful to the health of the casino employees. This study examines the correlations between work conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems amongst casino croupiers in Macau.
Its findings will provide casino managers and policy makers with evidence and awareness of the workplace health risks for the casino workers. Work conditions were measured by worker satisfaction towards the biological, chemical and physical elements in their work environments. Unhealthy lifestyles were measured by practices of excessive drinking, smoking, electronic game playing and addictive substance use as well as gambling.
Occupational health problems were measured by experiences of work related illnesses or symptoms. Results showed that high percentages of respondents were dissatisfied with the work conditions. On average each croupier experienced 10 work related health problems in the past 7 days. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.
Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS.
A postal questionnaire survey of casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work OR 3. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms OR 2.
Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Please do not ask for free, if you do not have the money, do not ask at all! If you are serious about profiting from your betting then sure fixed matches is here for you. We have So if you want to win big money, invest some before. All offers are available here on our website.
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