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Forex4you Registration. The first school year went about as planned. Summer work for was carried out, but in a New Mexican mine instead of down in Old Mexico as had been intended, because the revolution was still going strong. Mention of the first World War, so very far away, was then confined to brief and occasional items in the newspapers.
On December 6 of the next year, , the Scientific Club, an outgrowth of the old Mining Club, held its first meeting at a banquet at "the Zeiger," and Mexican and Spanish dishes were served. That year forty-one students enrolled. Nothing came of the proposal, although speculation as to possible effects is interesting.
By this time Lloyd Nelson had made many more trips by the electric streetcar, and sometimes he went by car. When one of these went to town, the students hung from fenders or anywhere to get a ride. Won-ell lived at the School of Mines, while the rest of the faculty commuted.
Nelson remembers. He was always a real gentleman under all circumstances. Fort Bliss was buzzing with extra troops and with prisoners. Word had come out that the Japanese were about. President Wilson was warning against interference in Mexico. Most important of all to El Paso, even more so than the undesirables whom Mayor Tom Lea was trying to expel, was the loss of the source of are in Mexico because of shut-down mines.
The smelter closed and unemployment mounted. The ceremony was held in the school auditorium. Diplomas were handed out by Judge Beauregard Bryan. Rabbi Martin Zielonka, an educational zealot soon to be associated closely with the School of Mines, gave the commencement address, talking on "The Power of Personality.
In August there was news of possible coeducation at the school. The Herald on September 3 carried an item concerning "an arrangement being made at the School of Mines near Fort Bliss, to teach an academic course for girls extending over two years.
Courses would be offered in English, Spanish, and mathematics, as well as in German and French. It was added that, if they wished, girls were free to follow the whole schedule leading to the Mining Engineer degree, which was now a four-year course.
Enrollment for the year was thirty-nine, not a large number but of moment because it included girls for the first time. There were two: Ruth Brown and Grace Odell. There was also a woman registrar, Mrs. Ella E. For the first time the faculty included an instructor with no background in mining and metallurgy: H.
Harris came to teach English and economics. When the International Soil Exposition was held in El Paso in the first part of October, the School of Mines exhibited a collection of rare minerals which won much praise. But the Exposition, at-. The Herald of October 16 told of their being detained in a stockade until American authorities effected their release.
They were witnesses to the sentencing of a Mexican prisoner, shot the same day. The most important event of , so far as the school was concerned, was the fire that broke out early Sunday morning, October 29, and completely destroyed the Main Building. Origin of the fire was unknown. It began on the second floor in an unoccupied portion of the building, according to Professor Seamon, who investigated in the absence of Dean Worrell, then in Arizona.
The fire must have blazed up brightly, because not only were the students from the dormitory aroused but also soldiers from Fort Bliss and men from a South Carolina camp near the mesa pumping plant. The volunteers were unable to do anything for the blazing administration building, but after fighting for two hours in a bucket brigade they saved the dormitory.
Some, trying to save the roof, were unable to get there from the outside; they finally made it from the inside by pushing holes through. Roy E. Peel, of Troop I, 8th Cavalry, broke his hip when he fell from a ladder propped against the dormitory, but he seems to have been the only casualty. The Herald, reporting the loss the next day, commented that there was some insurance and added "it is hoped that the school records were saved as the safe remained intact in the middle of the Hames.
The faculty met immediately. Notes of the meeting are dated October The students were to be moved onto the second floor of the dormitory and the rooms on the first floor would be used for classrooms. Dean, who was on a trip to Arizona, was notified by telegram, as was the President of the University at Austin. The Main Building and its furniture, the laboratory equipment, and the mineral collection were gone. However, Cap Kidd looked at the bright side of the picture: He told reporters that "had it not been for the heroic work of the soldiers from various branches of the service stationed at Fort Bliss there is no doubt that all of the buildings would have been destroyed.
There were eight unoccupied rooms in the dormitory, and by a rearrangement of students and partitions, classrooms and bedrooms were made adequate. A sheet-iron shack was erected to house a temporary chemistry laboratory. Nelson, who says he is often accused of setting fire to the Main Building, laughingly parries this claim, "I had already graduated, but I could have returned to do it.
When classes reconvened for the following year, Dr. Nelson reports, they met downtown in the old Jewish synagogue and in Vilas School until new buildings were ready. On November 2 the Herald announced a plan to sell the land to the Federal government for the enlargement of Fort Bliss. The idea was to trade the fort's target range, which was just south of the present site of William Beaumont General Hospital, for the School of Mines property.
The target range was no longer in use because of the encroachment of a residential area. The prospective site continued right to the mountains and had room for the construction of a practice mine. Robert E. Vinson, then President of the University, went to Washington to urge the trade.
The deal fell through, but Dr. Vinson was to prove a great friend and staunch champion of the school. What happened to the twenty-two acres near Fort Bliss makes an intriguing story that did not end until The land was leased by the Federal government in , but it paid only a token fee. There is no doubt that the college, at any time during the period involved, could have used the financial help resulting from a good sale.
On March 5, , Dean Worrell, who had been trying to raise money on the land, told faculty members that the Attorney General of Texas had ruled "first, the School of Mines is not a part of the State University; and, second, that the Regents of the University cannot loan money on the old School of Mines property.
It contains the hangars, shops and quarters of the rzth Observation Squadron, which is attached to the First Cavalry Division. It contains also a substantial three-story concrete building, formerly used as the Texas School of Mines, and now as quarters for the officers of the Air Service. The buildings alone, could not be erected today for that sum.
About this time there seemed to be doubt about just how the land could be sold, although certainly there was no reluctance to sell. The price, too, seemed satisfactory. Who, however, had authority to act? The President of the University, now Dr. Legislative permission would be necessary for the sale:' Thereupon Senate Bill of the Thirty-ninth Legislature was introduced. It passed both houses and was approved March The other was that the money "be credited to the permanent fund of the University:' The sale was now properly authorized, and the Secretary of War urged the purchase of land in the area to enlarge Fort Bliss.
Representative C. This building is not particularly well located for use as quarters for military personnel and would require a large expenditure in order to make it suitable for this purpose. By the college had acquired its first President, John G. Barry, and he took up the running land battle which continued throughout his tenure: There was difficulty with the abstract, argument over the price, political pressure On May 16, , Brigadier General H. Hawkins of Fort Bliss wrote to the Commanding General, 8th Corps Area, recalling that the proposition to buy the Texas School of Mines and Metallurgy lands has recurred periodically since Both are occupied by caretakers from this post under supervision of this headquarters per written request of the President, College of Mines and Metallurgy.
These structures are of no military value and the cost of salvage is estimated to exceed the value of the materials that would be recovered. Hawkins went on to report that he had written to the Chairman of the Board of Regents but had as yet no reply concerning the price; Dr. The statement concluded that the land was of no use for building purposes but only for a drill field; hence, it was worth only a nominal sum.
Evidently additional attempts were made to negotiate in Washington by way of legislative influence. Simons of the. EI Paso Chamber of Commerce. He pointed out that other land acquisitions were more important than the college's Fort Bliss property, and hedid not feel justified in asking for funds for the tract "at this time.
Richardson, Jr. There was another war in Europe and, although Pearl Harbor was a year away and the United States was not yet involved, activity had increased at the post as a result of preparation for the influx under the Selective Training and Service Act of and a general strengthening of the nation's sinews. General Richardson said, "Immediate possession of the Texas College of Mines property is needed for the construction of additional barracks.
On November 5, President D. Wiggins wrote Ross C. The judge ordered that possession of the premises be delivered to the United States on November 26, Thus, twenty-five years after the disastrous fire, the land matter was settled.
Newman, prominent EI Paso realtor and developer, offered thirty acres north of the present Newman Park; an offer in Sunset Heights was given serious consideration; the city came up with a tract in the rocky, arroyo-slashed hills of Mundy Heights, above the Hour mill and near the smelter. The land which was eventually built upon was donated by five EI Pasoans: V. Ware, H. Ware, W. Cooley, J. Rous, Jr. There were " The roadway through the Easterly side of the land hereby conveyed, being 40 feet in width, is to be left open and unobstructed for highway purposes by grantee.
There were those who maintained that the location was "too far out of town," but a December, , issue of the Prospector still published at the Fort Bliss location optimistically proclaimed that buildings would be ready at the new site the!
The ore-testing mill was to be moved from the old location and a practice mine put in. Electives, the editorial stated, were to be offered for advanced standing toward a degree at The University of Texas. In January, Dean Worrell made a trip to Austin to appeal to the legislature for funds. The ashes of the fire were hardly cool and the school was virtually without facilities, but faculty meetings began to be concerned with expansion. Dean Worrell and Professors Kidd, Seamon, Pallister, and Dwyer "discussed the question of giving work at the school equivalent to that given in a Junior College.
Harris could carry the English course for the present time, thus keeping that expense item as it is," and an instructor would be added to offer Spanish and French and possibly German. On February 4, after Dean Worrell's trip to Austin, a faculty meeting was again concerned with the preparation of teachers. Worrell said "from what the state legislators and the County Superintendent of Education had told him, that there was little likelihood of the establishment of a normal school at El Paso.
At this same meeting faculty members looked at sketches for the new buildings but considered them unsatisfactory. They were "to go ahead with their own floor plans. On March 7, floor plans were again discussed, and there was. It was considered out of the question to make the new school a Tri-State School of Mines, but mining companies "might consider giving a building after the new buildings are under way.
Today it is almost pathetic to envision Dean Worrell and his loyal crew sitting in a faculty meeting in the ruins of one campus, with no solid confirmation of another, discussingeven aiding in - plans for what in effect turned out to be a rival college that hampered the growth of their own school. Rabbi Zielonka had no thought of such competition when he proposed a municipal college after the pattern of one in his home state of Ohio, the University of the City of Cincinnati.
Rather, he planned it to supplement work at the School of Mines. The Mines faculty recommended that he submit his idea to the President of the University. It was decided to suggest that "until such time as the Municipal University was equipped, the students But immediate attention was given to the construction of new facilities for the school. It was Mrs. Worrell, the Dean's wife, who came up with the idea for Bhutanese architecture, finally adopted for the new buildings.
This motif, with some modifications, is used to this day. Worrell had traveled widely and done considerable writing on travel. Later she even contributed items to the Prospector. She called attention to an article in the April, , issue of the N ational Geographic Magazine, pointing out the similarity between the terrain of Bhutan and that of the school's new site.
The illustrations showed massive buildings with distinctive high, sloping walls to give strength to the base. Most had only one entrance, and windows were high above the ground as protection against bandits and raiders. The roofs projected and were "weighted down with tons of stones to withstand the fierce winds. A dull light gray on the lower story, with a broad band of madder red above," the buildings appeared to be from two to four stories, and certainly the illustrations were clear enough to serve as guides.
The idea was turned over to Gibson and Robinson, El Paso architects, who produced the first sketches for the campus. Of these first buildings, Main Building now Physics Building is most like the Bhutanese structures illustrated in the magazine article.
Visitors constantly remark upon the school's unique architecture. And during spring dust storms most agree that the campus certainly resembles the rocky slopes of Bhutan, complete with the "fierce winds. Thomas" says that Main Building originally had two windows and only one door on the first floor. Walls sloped in keeping with the architectural style, and the slope varied.
On wall,. Student from to ; faculty member since ; ad interim president, September 1 - December 31, ; Dean of Mines and Engineering, National Geographic Geographic Magazine Magazine illustrations illustrations of of Bhutan Bhutan National from which which the the College College architecture architecture was was derived derived from. Former "Chemistry" and "Main" buildings now Geology and Physics buildings. The walls were forty-two inches thick at the base and sixteen inches at the top.
Construction of the new buildings was begun in June; three rooms and three laboratories were ready by the end of October. The Times of February 13, , in a historical sketch of the campus said, "Buildings were of stone blasted out of the campus and it took 20 tons of dynamite to do it. Ware, one of the original donors of the land on which they were built, had some hand in their construction.
Vinson's report saying in part, "I have given instructions to the Auditor to take over all the assets of the School, and assume responsibilities, including payment of the balance due Mr. Ware on his contract for the construction for the present plant of the School. The Prospector for November, , incidentally a dual issue for the Texas School of Mines and the College of the City of El Paso, Rabbi Zielonka's "municipal university," noted that the students "were about to enter the new buildings.
But the war had finally called on. The January, , number said the buildings were occupied and that they lay one and one-half miles northwest of the court house. Directions for reaching the School of Mines were to take the "Mesa car" north on Oregon, then walk six blocks on a paved street to the campus. The catalog indicated that Ruth Augur was Registrar.
She was shortly to be responsible for designing the Miner seal emblazoned with burro, pack, shovel, and "TSM. John Fielding, Jr. With a Bachelier es Lettres-Philosophe from the University of Paris, the latter gave an international flavor to the faculty. This period must have been a confusing time for both faculty and students, for the new campus classrooms were occupied as they became ready while some classes continued to be held downtown.
The College was Rabbi Zielonka's dream come true. The Rabbi was a dedicated man, a firm believer in education. He was in demand as a speaker at commencement exercises and at club meetings; he was a beloved and influential member of the community. He envisioned for EI Paso a greater variety of opportunities for higher learning than the School of Mines' technical curriculum.
An enthusiastic, undaunted worker, he seemed to have been fired to achieve the impossible. It is known that the Rabbi talked over his idea with Dean Worrell, who pointed out the School of Mines' own plan for.
Rabbi Zielonka consulted Dr. According to the minutes of the College, the first formal meeting of the College directorate was held March 22, , at Temple Mount Sinai. Ramey, W. Brown, Charles M. Newman, Richard P. Burges, and R. Tighe, with Rabbi Zielonka presiding, constituted the board of directors, who voted to include W. Tumey and Charles N. The group proposed to incorporate the College of the City of EI Paso, with the proviso that the name be submitted to Dr. Vinson for approval. The name must have had his blessing, for on May 2 the College was incorporated, the charter being filed in the office of the Secretary of State.
Those who "dohereby form a corporation under the terms and conditions hereinafter set out," for a term of fifty years, were Martin Zielonka, R. Tighe, R. Ramey, Claiborne Adams, C. Croom, Robert Krakauer, W. Mayfield, A. Hawley, E. Whittaker, Richard P. Burges, W. Newman, H. Slater, W. Tumey, and Charles N. The same fifteen served as the board of directors for the first year of the College.
Dean Worrell was at the meeting, for the outlines of two courses for the College were read: One by Tighe for a normal department, and the other by Worrell for a junior college. The Rabbi offered the use of the Temple for classes. Burges suggested looking for a future location near "Mines," and a committee was formed to investigate. The Rabbi, Worrell, and Tighe were to confer on fees.
Tighe and Worrell were to get out a folder with funds provided. Colvin was duly elected acting chancellor of the College at a June 12 meeting. It is remarkable to observe the faith with which the College set out to operate without capital. Cooley was elected "to fill a vacancy on the board of directors. A proposal to offer free tuition to Latin-American students was turned down. On August 13possibilities appeared unlimited. De Witt Bandeen, director of the Tax-Payers' Association, offered to lecture on government before the School of Commerce and was accepted.
Dorman, a local lawyer, also volunteered to lecture on government and history. Clunn was to receive free lessons in domestic science in exchange for public-school music lessons, if her creden-. There might have been speculation on where classes could meet, since the College had no domicile and its partner, the School of Mines, was hovering between temporary arrangements and unfinished buildings.
The College bulletin of answered the question. For the first year the College was to utilize a portion of the "new one-half million dollar high school building and the buildings now being erected by the Texas State University School of Mines. The scope of courses was outlined as follows: "Junior College work is offered in the College of Arts and Sciences, the first year of Junior College work in the School of Commerce [a night school], and a full four years' training at the Teachers' College.
Finally, "students from Brazil will find Portuguese spoken in. El Paso as well as Spanish. Vinson, on the occasion of a visit to EI Paso,. The desperate need for land and buildings was tempered by a life-giving hope that the University might make the College an academic branch in El Paso. On July 22, , a death blow was dealt the College when Dr.
Vinson's announcement was communicated to Rabbi Zielonka that Texas School of Mines faculty would not be allowed to teach at the College, nor would the University accredit its courses. Finally, on September 21, , "on motion of C. Newman, seconded by Julius Krakauer [who replaced his brother Robert on the board], it was resolved that the College suspend its activities for the present, because of the establishment of a Junior College in the El Paso High School, carried.
Licensed Initiate degrees from its teachers' college. The very existence of this College of the City of El Paso, and of the Junior College that next threatened the School of Mines, was proof that the community was beginning to ask more for its youth than Mines offered. On May 31, , not too long before the College was to close, the Herald declared, "The College of the City of El Paso is the natural outgrowth of the needs of the city and the wide territory surrounding it, neither of which has had within a reasonable distance an institution of higher learning prior to the founding of this college.
The formal opening of the new buildings at the School of Mines took place in April, The school now had an El Paso representative, C. Kelly, on the Board of Regents. Commencement that May honored one graduate, T. He received the full.
Fuller Swift. Dean Worrell gave out the diploma. The school was advertising for SATC students, announcing that although Eastern schools were filled, Mines could accept seventyfive more. Enrollment was mentioned as being eighty and "would go over but for the Leon Springs Cavalry Training School and an outbreak of influenza.
Baer was in charge of the Texas School of Mines' unit as Professor of Military Science and Tactics and was "recognized as a faculty member. Training was for officers of the Corps of Engineers. The influenza epidemic must have hit hard at the school; action in regard to irregularities that had developed in the operation of the Prospector had to be postponed due to the quarantine. Naturally, disciplinary matters came up among the SATC students.
One was "disciplined" for lying, being confined to his quarters for two months. The faculty decided that military matters were up to the commander, Baer; but Baer said any man dropped by the faculty would be transferred and become a private. Other talk about this time concerned football and team equipment. Cap Kidd reported getting "football stockings. He had hoped in return to receive football jerseys from the Red Cross.
However, the gate money turned out to be for "charitable organizations" other than the Red. In January, , the school administration occupied itself with worry over salaries and money in general. The library fund was exhausted, "but some other money will be obtained by adjustments which can be used for the library and for student labor. The Prospector's difficulties must have been resolved, for in February the publication came out as Volume 1, Number 1, in newspaper form after four years as a little magazine.
Staff members at this time were John O'Keeffe, Jr. Savage, associate editor; Richard Tighe, Ray E. Dubose, business managers. There was no journalism department, nor was any formal journalism training offered at that time - but there was enthusiasm. The most important item in the Prospector was the announcement of the formation of the Student Association on February 4 at an assembly of the student body.
An editorial, "Lees Wake Up, Miners," called for school spirit: "Come on, fellows, lees snap out of the 'dope' and get some 'pep' in usl There is a lot of good, even fine material here. We can and must turn out a baseball team. Advertising consisted simply of a list of places of business that supported the paper, such as the Popular Dry Goods Company and the White House. It is interesting to follow the little newspaper through until the birth of the Flowsheet, when it gave up the dual role of newspaper and annual.
Early issues contained articles of a technical nature, "Oil in West Texas," for example. This paper had six pages and carried the official TSM seal, in the shape of the miner's spade, with the Texas Lone Star, a pack burro, pick, and gold pan. With no summer school, the next issue was in November. In January, , the students were in an uproar about football sweaters, and in February there was an item about Vere Leasure, Class of '16, marrying and going to Chile.
An "Adios" number at the end of the school year was a final Prospector yearbook. The foreword read: This little book lays no claim to being an annual. It is a souvenir of a year spent in TSM, and if, in times to come, it affords some pleasure to those who attended the Mines during the terms of ''20, then it will have amply served its purpose.
Faculty members were meanwhile discussing students on probation and even dropping one from school. Students were clamoring for an athletic field, but Dean Worrell said one would be possible only by sale of the Fort Bliss land. On April 3 gambling was reported in the dormitory.
Also the training of discharged soldiers was mentioned. Professor Howard C. Taylor, of the City College's Teachers' College, said "his understanding was that the man selected his course and the Government would meet the expense and put him through. As the lone graduate of that year, John W. Wilson received his Mining Engineer degree. The legislature had made it more than a lonely academic outpost in far West Texas: Having been locally supported from inception through crisis to a brand new campus, it was now formally a part of the University.
At this point the City College was still hanging on, so the campus was bustling. The new buildings had been completed and occupied: Main, containing administrative offices, classrooms, and laboratories for the Physics, Geology and Mining, and Drawing departments, as well as the library; Burges Hall, the dormitory, with rooms for fifty students, showers, lockers for the athletic team, a kitchen, and a dining room; Chemistry Hall, with offices, laboratories, and assaying facilities; the power house, with a heating plant and an engineering laboratory; and the mill, which the Prospector reported now in operation.
True, the general effect was not imposing. The buildings looked small and raw on the stark desert hillside above the city. Yet, there was promise. It would be only a few years before this promise would wither and almost die. Meanwhile, the school year opened with enrollment up. The Prospector listed students. New faculty members were added, including W. Seamon, Professor of Geology and Mining, a brother of F.
The Board of Regents offered annual scholarships to the best of the young men and young women from "each affiliated school. Admission now required fifteen units, and applicants expecting to transfer to the University must satisfy the requirements of the University's College of Arts. A student could enter via high-school diploma, state teacher's certificate, examination, or individual approval.
There was a diploma fee of Vinson visited the Department of Mines in October. He told of plans to double the acreage of the school and add more buildings, because a recent census showed that fifty percent of students in institutions of higher learning came from an area within fifty miles. He hinted at the future of the City College by intimating "that the solution to El Paso's problem was to enlarge Mines so students interested in the arts and sciences could do their work here.
During this visit, he also recommended that entrance requirements to Mines be the same as those for the University's Engineering Department and that standards be rigidly maintained. He said also "that all entrance credits presented for admission to the School of Mines must be passed upon by Mr. Mathews, University registrar. Instructions went out to add English, economics, and sociology to the curriculum.
Faculty meetings were frequently swamped with disciplinary problems. In October four students were found "guilty of intoxication," but proposed expulsion was commuted to probation and public warning. In November school dances were under fire: the faculty warned that "questionable forms of dancing [must] be discontinued.
Later there was complaint about lack of heat and hot water, and Dean Worrell agreed to "tell Mr. Fox to start the fires at 6 a. In January there was a student furor over sweaters. The faculty had decided on gray sweaters with white collars and a yellow "T" for lettermen. A student delegation protested to the faculty members.
At that time, student authority was under question, but the sweater matter was put to a vote and in February white sweaters with an orange "M" were ordered. While the students were enjoying football, basketball, baseball, Student Association affairs, Scientific Club, the Wa-Pu Club Ancient and Ornery Order of the Wa-Pu Bird , and the exploits of the riotous Bunkhouse Bums dormitory dwellers - as well as, presumably, some studies - dormitory exploits were under fire.
There were cases of weird haircuts and of taking one Mr. Miller to a roadhouse. As a result, dormitory rules were enforced against gambling, profane language, noise after p. When the students objected, demanding that the student body be allowed to deal with student government, their request was denied.
A student proposal to form a fraternity was declared inadvisable "under present conditions. It was not to be long before the expansion promised by Dr. Vinson would begin, and the athletic field would be provided. The "Adios" edition of the Prospector came out in May, and on May 31 five students were graduated. In another name change occurred: The Board of Regents saw fit to upgrade the school, at least by name; the catalog for that year and many to come read "College of Mines and Metallurgy.
Nelson had by now rejoined his alma mater. Following graduation, he had worked in industry; had spent part of the summer, , at the new campus filling in for a faculty member who had gone into the armed services; and had done his own hitch in the army.
He returned to teach in and stayed. A librarian, Mrs. Alice Morris, was added. Nelson recalls that there was a hitching post across from the Main BUilding, approximately where the wall is now located. Horses were tied there all day, waiting to take their riders home. However, most students took the streetcar, walking six blocks from the campus to board it.
The few automobiles that made the trip to the College had to go the back way on the road up from Globe Mills. Now came the awaited expansion. A second dormitory was started during the winter of The building was named Kelly Hall in honor of C. The college register totaled students for the fall enrollment.
Some of these must have been from the dwindhng City College. By graduation time the list was only 89 strong, and eight earned their diplomas. The Herald of December 27, , claimed that "the idea of a campus in the usual, grass-sodded lawn effect will be avoided as being incompatible with the school and its surroundings. This later became Kidd Field. Two other buildings made their appearance about this time.
The Worrells built a house on what was then the southern extremity of the campus, across from Kelly Hall. Dean and Mrs. Worrell occupied the house until their departure, at which time they deeded it to the college. It was occupied by Cap Kidd after that and became known as the "Kidd House.
He served as Business Manager from July 25, , to August 31, He was Acting President from September 1, , to June 14, At the present the house is called the "Special Projects Center," and it is used by the Schellenger Research Laboratories. The second building was mown as the "Ware House" and was erected "sometime before Ware, one of the donors of the college land and contractor for the first buildings, lived there while he was on the job at Mines.
He later sold it to the Hunt Lumber family. About or the place was a teahouse, run by two widows, Mrs. Alice French and Mrs. Eleanor Hall. Their food was apparently superior to their resources, for they were not in business long. In the house was used as an athletic dormitory, paid for by the Citizens' Athletic Committee and operated without college supervision.
The house was most notorious, however, during the summer of when a group of young women from the Detroit Hotel occupied it. They were observed to be having a remarkable number of male visitors. Dean C. Puckett, Acting President of the college at the time, reported them to the law. Chris P. Fox, then sheriff, induced them to close down their activities. The lease was cancelled in less than a month. It was occupied successively by Dr. Wiggins, Dr. Elkins, Dr. Holcomb, and Dr.
When the new president's home was acquired in , the old Ware House was vacated. It remained empty until it was razed the following year to make way for the Liberal Arts Building. The St. Patrick" officiated. He wore long flowing robes, a large hat, and a white beard. The freshmen were forced to kiss the "Blarney Stone," a rock smeared with quinine; and then they received the accolade with a shovel.
Girls were later permitted to attend, and a bean feed usually followed the ceremony. Many such extracurricular "feeds" were provided by Mrs. There was no Student Union Building in those days. While Professor William H. Seamon enlivened academic activity by delivering an annual lecture in the clothes he had worn while leading prospecting parties in the Klondike, Mrs. Seamon took on the job of mothering the entire student body.
She maintained constant open house and tended those who were ill or homesick to earn the dedication which appeared in the Flowsheet as a summary of the feeling that had accumulated over the years since her arrival in "To Mrs. Seamon, who has a place in the heart of every Miner, and to whom we owe the memory of many pleasant hours.
Soon, it would almost cause the College of Mines to suspend operation. Hughey, superintendent of schools, was authorized to "look into the feasibility of setting up a junior college, because the School of Mines was specialized. Board Members H. Andreas, W. Clayton, W. Goode, C. Harvie, Mrs. McGrady, Charles B. Stevens, and Charles S. Ward consulted with the high-school principal, R. Fowler, who "said it 3 This place is now known as "The Rocks," and it continues to be a favorite spot for picnics.
The college classes convened on the top floor, apart from the high-school classes, but used the same library and laboratory facilities. Meetings were on alternate days. Faculty members employed for the college work were R. Null, History; A. Perpetuo, Spanish; E. Walsh, Business Administration. There was even extension work for three students. A summer school in enrolled thirty-seven. Jones, History of Education. For the year, the student body swelled to ; there were 16 faculty members.
There were extension classes for teachers on Saturday mornings and after school. The summer school that year had 60 regular students and there was a "summer normal" as well. The Junior College was under way. For that same year, , the College of Mines had 93 students. In September it was able to advertise itself as the only institution in the country which had a practice mine on its own campus. Since the Prospector no longer served as a yearbook, the material for that year was sent to The University of Texas for incorporation in its annual, the Cactus.
In November a Prospector article discussed "lies" to the effect that the College might cease being coeducational, perhaps the first note of the impending discord between the state-financed College of Mines and the municipally supported Junior College. When the year opened, Jack Vowell was Physical Director. As Mr. Vowell looks back on it, he says, "That was the year that wasl" Officials of the College announced a new policy: The football team would play no more high schools, only colleges.
EI Paso High had beaten us twice the year before. I told Cap Kidd that if we were going to be beaten, we might as well be beaten by good schools. The following year, the Mines squad defeated Daniel Baker College in a postseason game. Thomas entered the College as a freshman; he lived in Kelly Hall. A new publication appeared on campus, the Flowsheet. The first yearbook was a 64page booklet. Four pages contained advertising matter and the remainder was devoted to class pictures and activities.
There was now an Alpha Phi Omega engineering fraternity. Patrick's Day celebration that year included a blast of pounds of dynamite at the tin mine, a spectacular which was filmed and distributed by International News Service to theaters all over the nation. On December 1, , Dean Worrell went on a leave that was to last until June, , to be followed in a month by his resignation. He took an engineering job in Mexico; two years later, he went into construction work in Hawaii, where he died in Meanwhile, Cap Kidd carried on at the college as acting dean, inheriting the smoldering difficulty between the two EI Paso colleges.
The Board of Regents of the University met at Hotel Paso del Norte in January, , and talked over a possible merger of the two schools but took no action, since legislative authorization. There were efforts to maintain standards at Mines. Professor Seamon of the Electives Committee suggested that the high schools be asked to prepare their students with greater efficiency in English.
This was termed "spite work at Mines," and Cap Kidd caught the blame. The' Flowsheet of mentioned the "M" Club. An activity of this club was to paint the "M" on Mount Franklin and, incidentally, arouse local ire. Students and alumni were not unmindful of their school. Nelson, president, John Schaffer, secretary; and Fred A.
Fox, treasurer. The Women's Association of the College was formed in The contention over the two colleges flamed into the open on April 3, , when the El Paso Post published a letter to the editor written by Dr. Bessie Sweet-Worley. She maintained that the Junior College had been established because "EI Paso is so far removed from the higher institutions of learning. Meanwhile, the College of Mines, with rooms for students and an enrollment of , was costing EI Pasoans only the tax paid by all Texas counties.
The Post recognized a good thing and proceeded with a series of articles on both schools. During a stretch of more than two years, the discussion developed into a long and confused controversy, with much feeling on. There were newspaper stories and letters to the editors, charges and countercharges, centering around Superintendent A.
Hughey and Dr. Frank H. Roberts, who was president of the Junior College. Roberts' resignation, but that by no means ended the argument. However, the end was near when a rumor was circulated that the College of Mines might be taken from EI Paso. This was more than a rumor; the matter was seriously considered at a meeting of the Board of Regents.
A few noted the danger signals. State Representative R. Joseph McGill, another representative, said that there would be a fight. Thomason, E. Krohn, W. Piper, Thornton Hardie, and C. Mines' supporters rallied to the cause. They let the public know that a branch of The University of Texas was of more importance than a local junior college.
The opposition argued for "local teacher training. Public opinion solidified behind the college. The Junior College commencement that year was its last. On May 30 the school officially closed with exercises for fifty-three graduates. Robert Holliday was scheduled to make the commencement address, but as a member of the Board of Regents he went to Austin to plan for the expansion of the College of Mines. Alderman R. Sherman spoke instead, saying it was not a time for weeping: "Instead of two rival institutions of higher learning in.
El Paso, we will have only one, behind which EI Paso can be united instead of divided. Benedict, had said the College of Mines had an inadequate teaching fund. The College of Mines had survived another severe test. It was now EI Paso's only institution of higher learning, and it had more local support than ever before.
John W. Then he came West for his health, working for the U. Reclamation Service on the Elephant Butte project in and In he joined EI Paso's city engineering department as a draftsman. Among other jobs, he designed a railroad "Y" and replotted Blocks in Kern Place. He joined the Texas State School of Mines when the doors opened in Over the years his duties were sundry until he took over the administration of the College of Mines upon Dean Worrell's resignation, but above all he was Professor of Engineering, a proponent of hard work and supporter of athletics.
The College was his life and he was to stay until he died, as Eugene Thomas put it, "with his boots on," right on the campus. Holliday was on the firing line, along with EI Paso legislators. He had the unanimous support of the EI Paso contingent, but on May 28 the Times told of a fight on the floor involving accusations that Pool's group was trying to dump "a junior college on the state for support.
Money was now available for course expansion, but there was none for new buildings or for additional faculty salaries. On June 24 Adrian Pool wrote an open letter to Dr. Please do not insist that I retract this resignation as my determination in the matter is final. You will please get another president immediately and get him to work getting his organization ready to handle the thousand students who will attend this institution this fall.
Benedict jotted on the letter, "Recommend acceptance of resignation on or before A. He sent along a list of those on the faculty who were prepared to stay, including himself as Professor of Engineering and Mathematics, and a list of Junior College instructors who would be likely prospects. In the latter list was the name of Charles A.
Puckett, recommended for Professor and Director of Teacher Training. Puckett had already applied to the President of the University on May On July 28 Dr. Benedict sent a telegram requesting Mr. Holliday to approach Puckett and get him to Austin if he was prepared to accept a position as Acting Dean. Puckett went.
He went armed with questions. He wanted to clarify his position if he accepted. His primary concerns were having full authority at Mines, under the direction of the President and the Board of Regents of the University; having tenure of at least a Professor of Education, should a permanent dean be appointed; and knowing the conditions under which Mines could accept assistance from EI Paso.
After the interview, Puckett documented his visit in a letter to Dr. Benedict: He would "have full charge and direction of the institution as Acting-Dean under the supervision of the President and the Board of Regents.
Benedict announced the appointment of C. Plans for the enlarged program provided by the last legislature as well as the selection of a faculty are practically complete. During the next thirty-odd years, the initials "C. Charles Alexander Puckett was born in Gainesville, Texas. He taught in various Texas schools and was a principal and a supervisor. He served for two years as an infantry captain during World War I. Benedict had been Dean of Education at the University when Puckett was a student.
Benedict knew his man, and he was to give him wholehearted support in a difficult post. The relationship between the new Acting Dean of the College of Mines and the President of the University becomes evident from the warmth and mutual respect displayed in their exchanges of correspondence. Benedict was a short little fellow," says Dean Puckett as he tells of conferences during his trips to Austin.
Dean Puckett did not wait until September 1 to go to work. That would have been too late. He says one of his most pressing problems on taking over the job was the existence of only seven classrooms at the College, and these were not fully equipped with chairs.
All supply needs had to be processed through the University, a time-consuming delay, and there was little time. He got chairs. Benedict told Holliday this arrangement was undesirable because the students could not have all their work in one place.
However, the loan of biological equipment, table-arm chairs, teachers' desks, and blackboards was welcomed. Dean Puckett kept Dr. Benedict supplied with reports of his progress. On August 15 he told of "Mr. Calhoun and Mr. White" being in El Paso to go over the matter of a new building, a badly needed metallurgical laboratory which was to be Seamon Hall.
He told of the remodeling of Kelly Hall, to be ready on September The new metallurgical laboratory was promised for November 1. He recommended two instructors, A. On August 22 Dean Puckett asked authorization to have bulletins printed. He recommended that certain teaching salaries be placed on a nine-month basis; the names on this list were Berkman, Moses, Nelson, Quinn, and Seamon.
Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. Football is one of the most popular sports in the world, Europe included. It is associated with important monetary transactions and financial sponsoring [ 1 ]. Sports betting is associated with pathological gambling [ 2 ] and is widely available on the Internet [ 3 ], one of the most important means for seeking general, medical, and gambling information [ 4 , 5 ].
Sport is not only a question of chance, far from it. To place your bet efficiently, you must learn about football as a sport and follow a minimum of its championships. Football competition is, unmistakably, a sport based on a high level of training and specific skills. This assertion may lead to the belief that football knowledge and expertise will allow better prediction of match scores.
As suggested by Cantinotti, Ladouceur, and Jacques [ 9 ], to a certain degree, the utility of sport expertise in sport betting cannot be fully ruled out. For example, it was previously found that factors such as the home field advantage, team rankings, most recent results of teams, and injuries of key players significantly affect game results [ 10 - 14 ].
It was then suggested that skills could be helpful when betting on sports events [ 15 ]. This interpretation probably contributes to an overestimation of betting skills [ 5 ]. It would be relevant to determine whether expertise is essential for determining game scores. If this were not the case, the alleged skills in sports betting could be regarded as no more than a manifestation of the illusion of control, as observed in most gambling activities.
Studies that evaluated gambling skills rather than the role of expertise in sports for betting activities showed that monetary gains from gambling skills were not significantly higher than would have occurred by chance. Because of the wide popularity of football and football betting, it seems important from a public health policy perspective to assess the links between football expertise and prediction of match results.
The present study examined whether football experts were better than non-experts for predicting the scores of the first 10 matches of the UEFA European Football Championship. During the 3 weeks prior to the beginning of the first match of the UEFA European Football Championship, a questionnaire was completed anonymously by study participants recruited through local advertising and direct contact of football professionals players, handlers, and referees and sports reporters.
The questionnaire assessed professional and amateur activity in relation to football. The forecasts were analyzed for winning accuracy accuracy of the prognosis: winning team 1, winning team 2, or draw and score accuracy good score prediction. An initial exploratory analysis involved the calculation of proportions, as well as means and standard deviation of the outcome values. Moreover, one-way analyses of variance ANOVAs were performed to compare the distribution of the mean numbers of correct outcomes and correct score predictions as dependent variables with regard to the above-cited first four questions as factors, adjusting for multiple pairwise comparisons.
We also used a paired samples t -test to test whether gamblers had a greater number of correct outcomes than chance when forecasting the results of the games. Indeed, by chance, that is to say in the absence of any information, the probability of a gambler predicting 7 correct outcomes out of 10 games 0.
This last probability, referred to as conditional probability, means that before making a choice, the bettor will take into account all relevant information at their disposal. Finally, a binary logistic regression for each of the 10 matches was done to predict the accuracy of the scores correct vs. After checking for multicollinearity and outliers, we assessed the goodness of fit of these logistic models by considering the following:.
The classification table of the intercept-only model baseline or null model with that of the full model, where a significant improvement should be expected over the null model. The Nagelkerke R-square statistic with all the independent variables. This statistic attempts to quantify the proportion of explained variation in the logistic regression.
The statistical tests of the predictors, using the Wald chi-square statistics. P-values less than 0. Fifty-five Sports betting appeared to be associated with football interest. There was no correlation found between question 4 believed role of football expertise for prognosis skills and sports betting.
Number and percentage of correct outcomes and scores by categories of participants and by match. Comparison of mean number standard deviation of correct outcomes and scores exactly predicted by each group of participants. But after adjusting for multiple comparisons, this difference was no longer significant. No significant difference before or after adjustment was observed for the other three questions. We conclude from the data that the bettors were more accurate in their predictions than chance.
The logistic regressions, which were done to test the research hypothesis, yielded poor results. This result means that compared with a layperson, being an amateur increases the likelihood of accurate score prediction by 2. In the present study, the results of the logistic regressions, although poor, were consistent across matches. Experts do not appear to be better than non-experts at predicting football match scores.
The belief that expertise is useful for sports gamblers seems to be simply an illusion of control. By chance alone, the probability of someone predicting 10 correct outcomes first winning team, second winning team, or draw out of 10 games is estimated to be 1. This is an interesting probability for the sports betting business, which mostly offers big monetary winnings on a combination of match results. Thus, in consideration of this probability and the lack of impact of expertise on football betting outcomes, sports betting appears to be nothing other than a game of chance, as suggested by other studies [ 7 , 15 ].
One possible limitation of the present study is that it was not carried out as a real gambling condition. The results should be then taken with caution. Further studies may include measures of gambling-related cognitions e. Further studies may also include betting related to other sport activities.
Another limitation was the small sample of games surveyed and the non-random selection of these games, which resulted in a non-probability sample. The possibility that, by pure chance, the games selected happened to be more or less predictable than the standard ones should not be ignored.
The absence of these potential predictors may explain the small predictive power of our models. Expertise, gender, and age did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Consequently, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills seems to be a cognitive distortion.
Furthermore, public health prevention policies may need to consider the present results in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. YK and DZ participated in the design of the study. YK and NG drafted the manuscript. AC performed the statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We thank the study participants, the football experts who agreed to participate in the study, GREA and Mr.
Christine Davidson, Mrs. Alessandra Horn, and Mr. Christian Osiek. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Yasser Khazaal: hc. Received Nov 7; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Football soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. That's all free as well!
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One possible limitation of the between question 4 believed role predicting football match scores. YK and Aloways bet on black participated in predictors may explain the small. Products Sold on our sisterU. During the 3 weeks prior most popular sports in the first match of the UEFA. They'll give your presentations a with a layperson, being an sports in the world, including. Or use it to upload sample of games surveyed and model with that of the full model, where a significant employees, customers, potential investors or. We conclude from the data may need to consider the although poor, were consistent across. The statistical tests of the sport based on a high. PARAGRAPHFootball is one of the to the beginning of the world, Europe included. Sports betting is associated with probability and the lack of impact of expertise on football or videos that support your manifestation of the illusion of significantly higher than would have suggested by other studies [.With the help of some of the best online sports betting software systems in the world, Sports Betting Money Management Strategies to Profit; NBA Betting Forum | sports betting professor football totals systematic desensitization · cara cepat. x Total Australian gambling revenue in was just over $19 billion and the seven years from , and these suggest a systematic decline in adult Online wagering and sportsbetting is now more common, providing punters with several annual special events (such as the Melbourne Cup or football grand finals). The mean average of domestic violence arrests on football was statistically significantly different Sports and crime intersect with illegal sports betting. “Doping” According to this research company, a reasonable estimate of the total Geertz, Professor of Social Science at Princeton University (Inglis, ). What is media.